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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4), 3894-3936; doi:10.3390/ijerph110403894

European Monitoring Systems and Data for Assessing Environmental and Climate Impacts on Human Infectious Diseases

1
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Tomtebodavägen 11A, Solna, 17183 Stockholm, Sweden
2
Public Health England, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK
3
Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7TJ, UK
4
Faculty of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Larissa 41110, Greece
5
Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control, 17182 Solna, Sweden
6
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden
This author is retired from the Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 December 2013 / Revised: 25 March 2014 / Accepted: 28 March 2014 / Published: 9 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Collection Climate Change and Human Health)
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Abstract

Surveillance is critical to understanding the epidemiology and control of infectious diseases. The growing concern over climate and other drivers that may increase infectious disease threats to future generations has stimulated a review of the surveillance systems and environmental data sources that might be used to assess future health impacts from climate change in Europe. We present an overview of organizations, agencies and institutions that are responsible for infectious disease surveillance in Europe. We describe the surveillance systems, tracking tools, communication channels, information exchange and outputs in light of environmental and climatic drivers of infectious diseases. We discuss environmental and climatic data sets that lend themselves to epidemiological analysis. Many of the environmental data sets have a relatively uniform quality across EU Member States because they are based on satellite measurements or EU funded FP6 or FP7 projects with full EU coverage. Case-reporting systems for surveillance of infectious diseases should include clear and consistent case definitions and reporting formats that are geo-located at an appropriate resolution. This will allow linkage to environmental, social and climatic sources that will enable risk assessments, future threat evaluations, outbreak management and interventions to reduce disease burden. View Full-Text
Keywords: surveillance systems; climate change; environmental surveillance; geographic information systems; environmental epidemiology; infectious diseases; outbreaks surveillance systems; climate change; environmental surveillance; geographic information systems; environmental epidemiology; infectious diseases; outbreaks
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nichols, G.L.; Andersson, Y.; Lindgren, E.; Devaux, I.; Semenza, J.C. European Monitoring Systems and Data for Assessing Environmental and Climate Impacts on Human Infectious Diseases. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 3894-3936.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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