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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(5), 5382-5402; doi:10.3390/ijerph110505382

Range-Finding Risk Assessment of Inhalation Exposure to Nanodiamonds in a Laboratory Environment

Nanosafety Research Centre, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, FI-00250 Helsinki, Finland
National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Lersø Parkallé 105, Copenhagen DK-2100, Denmark
Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fenghui Road, Xi'an 710075, China
Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, The University of Jordan, Amman JO-11942, Jordan
Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Hällströmin Katu 2, P.O. Box 64, Helsinki FI-00014, Finland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 March 2014 / Revised: 4 May 2014 / Accepted: 8 May 2014 / Published: 16 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrafine Particles and Potential Health Effects)
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This study considers fundamental methods in occupational risk assessment of exposure to airborne engineered nanomaterials. We discuss characterization of particle emissions, exposure assessment, hazard assessment with in vitro studies, and risk range characterization using calculated inhaled doses and dose-response translated to humans from in vitro studies. Here, the methods were utilized to assess workers’ risk range of inhalation exposure to nanodiamonds (NDs) during handling and sieving of ND powder. NDs were agglomerated to over 500 nm particles, and mean exposure levels of different work tasks varied from 0.24 to 4.96 µg·m−3 (0.08 to 0.74 cm−3). In vitro-experiments suggested that ND exposure may cause a risk for activation of inflammatory cascade. However, risk range characterization based on in vitro dose-response was not performed because accurate assessment of delivered (settled) dose on the cells was not possible. Comparison of ND exposure with common pollutants revealed that ND exposure was below 5 μg·m−3, which is one of the proposed exposure limits for diesel particulate matter, and the workers’ calculated dose of NDs during the measurement day was 74 ng which corresponded to 0.02% of the modeled daily (24 h) dose of submicrometer urban air particles. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanomaterial; occupational hygiene; source characterization; exposure assessment; dose assessment; in vitro nanomaterial; occupational hygiene; source characterization; exposure assessment; dose assessment; in vitro

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Koivisto, A.J.; Palomäki, J.E.; Viitanen, A.-K.; Siivola, K.M.; Koponen, I.K.; Yu, M.; Kanerva, T.S.; Norppa, H.; Alenius, H.T.; Hussein, T.; Savolainen, K.M.; Hämeri, K.J. Range-Finding Risk Assessment of Inhalation Exposure to Nanodiamonds in a Laboratory Environment. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 5382-5402.

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