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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1527; doi:10.3390/ijerph14121527

Stress-Induced Hyperglycemia in Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Analysis to Explore the Definition Based on the Trauma Registry Data

1
Department of Neurosurgery, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan
2
Department of Anesthesiology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan
3
Department of Plastic Surgery, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 November 2017 / Revised: 5 December 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 7 December 2017
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Abstract

Background: The diagnosis of diabetic hyperglycemia (DH) does not preclude a diabetes patient from having a stress-induced hyperglycemic response. This study aimed to define the optimal level of elevated glucose concentration for determining the occurrence of stress-induced hyperglycemia (SIH) in patients with diabetes. Methods: This retrospective study reviewed the data of all hospitalized trauma patients, in a Level I trauma center, from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2016. Only adult patients aged ≥20 years, with available data on serum glucose and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels upon admission, were included in the study. Long-term average glucose levels, as A1c-derived average glucose (ADAG), using the equation, ADAG = ((28.7 × HbA1c) − 46.7), were calculated. Patients with high glucose levels were divided into three SIH groups with diabetes mellitus (DM), based on the following definitions: (1) same glycemic gap from ADAG; (2) same percentage of elevated glucose of ADAG, from which percentage could also be reflected by the stress hyperglycemia ratio (SHR), calculated as the admission glucose level divided by ADAG; or (3) same percentage of elevated glucose as patients with a defined SIH level, in trauma patients with and without diabetes. Patients with incomplete registered data were excluded. The primary hypothesis of this study was that SIH in patients with diabetes would present worse mortality outcomes than in those without. Detailed data of SIH in patients with diabetes were retrieved from the Trauma Registry System. Results: Among the 546 patients with DH, 332 (32.0%), 188 (18.1%), and 106 (10.2%) were assigned as diabetes patients with SIH, based on defined glucose levels, set at 250 mg/dL, 300 mg/dL, and 350 mg/dL, respectively. In patients with defined cut-off glucose levels of 250 mg/dL and 300 mg/dL, SIH was associated with a 3.5-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.61–7.46; p = 0.001) and 3-fold (95% CI 1.11–8.03; p = 0.030) higher odds of mortality, adjusted by sex, age, pre-existing comorbidities, and injury severity score, than the 491 patients with diabetic normoglycemia (DN). However, in patients with a defined cut-off glucose level of 350 mg/dL, adjusted mortality in SIH in DM was insignificantly different than that in DM. According to the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, a blood sugar of 233 mg/dL, a glycemic gap of 79 (i.e., blood sugar of 251 mg/dL), and a SHR of 1.45 (i.e., blood sugar of 250 mg/dL) were identified as cut-offs for mortality outcomes, with AUCs of 0.622, 0.653, and 0.658, respectively. Conclusions: In this study, a cut-off glucose level of 250 mg/dL was selected to provide a better definition of SIH in DM than glucose levels of 300 mg/dL or 350 mg/dL. View Full-Text
Keywords: stress-induced hyperglycemia; diabetes mellitus; glycemic gap; hemoglobin A1c; mortality; stress hyperglycemia ratio stress-induced hyperglycemia; diabetes mellitus; glycemic gap; hemoglobin A1c; mortality; stress hyperglycemia ratio
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rau, C.-S.; Wu, S.-C.; Chen, Y.-C.; Chien, P.-C.; Hsieh, H.-Y.; Kuo, P.-J.; Hsieh, C.-H. Stress-Induced Hyperglycemia in Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Analysis to Explore the Definition Based on the Trauma Registry Data. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1527.

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