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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 432; doi:10.3390/ijerph14040432

Association between Blood Lead Levels and Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase in Pregnant Women

1
Institute of Scientific Research, Juarez University of the State of Durango, AV. Universidad y Fanny Anitua s/n. Col. Centro, C. P. 34000 Durango, Mexico
2
Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Juarez University of the State of Durango, Cuauhtemoc, 223 North, Col. Centro, C. P. 34000 Durango, Mexico
3
General Hospital 450, Health Services, C. P. 34000 Durango, Mexico
4
Faculty of Health Sciences, Juarez University of the State of Durango, Gomez Palacio la Salle 1 y Sixto Ugalde, s/n, Col. Revolucion, C. P. 35050 Gomez Palacio, Durango, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Howard W. Mielke
Received: 1 March 2017 / Revised: 6 April 2017 / Accepted: 12 April 2017 / Published: 18 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [528 KB, uploaded 18 April 2017]   |  

Abstract

Blood lead levels (BLLs) and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity are considered biomarkers of lead exposure and lead toxicity, respectively. The present study was designed to investigate the association between BLLs and ALAD activity in pregnant women from Durango, Mexico. A total of 633 pregnant women aged 13–43 years participated in this study. Blood lead was measured by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. ALAD activity was measured spectrophotometrically. Mean blood lead was 2.09 ± 2.34 µg/dL; and 26 women (4.1%) crossed the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommended level of 5 µg/dL. ALAD activity was significantly lower in women with levels of lead ≥5 µg/dL compared to those with BLLs < 5 µg/dL (p = 0.002). To reduce the influence of extreme values on the statistical analysis, BLLs were analyzed by quartiles. A significant negative correlation between blood lead and ALAD activity was observed in the fourth quartile of BLLs (r = −0.113; p < 0.01). Among women with blood lead concentrations ≥2.2 µg/dL ALAD activity was negatively correlated with BLLs (r = −0.413; p < 0.01). Multiple linear regression demonstrated that inhibition of ALAD in pregnant women may occur at levels of lead in blood above 2.2 µg/dL. View Full-Text
Keywords: blood lead levels; delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity; pregnant women; lead exposure; lead toxicity blood lead levels; delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity; pregnant women; lead exposure; lead toxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

La-Llave-León, O.; Méndez-Hernández, E.M.; Castellanos-Juárez, F.X.; Esquivel-Rodríguez, E.; Vázquez-Alaniz, F.; Sandoval-Carrillo, A.; García-Vargas, G.; Duarte-Sustaita, J.; Candelas-Rangel, J.L.; Salas-Pacheco, J.M. Association between Blood Lead Levels and Delta-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase in Pregnant Women. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 432.

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