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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 434; doi:10.3390/ijerph14040434

How Sensors Might Help Define the External Exposome

1
Institute of Occupational Medicine, Research Avenue North, Edinburgh EH14 4AP, UK
2
Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
3
TNO, Nederlandse Organisatie voor Toegepast Natuurwetenschappelijk, Postbus 360, 3700 AJ Zeist, The Netherlands
4
Epidemiology of Allergic and Respiratory Diseases Department (EPAR), Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, INSERM, Institut Pierre Louis d’Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique (IPLESP UMRS 1136), Medical School Saint-Antoine, F75012 Paris, France
5
INEGI, Institute of Science and Innovation in Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Management, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
6
UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, 650 Charles E. Young Drive South, 56-070B CHS, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
7
Institute of Biological Chemistry, Biophysics and Bioengineering, Heriot Watt University, Riccarton, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jonathan Levy
Received: 11 January 2017 / Revised: 14 March 2017 / Accepted: 23 March 2017 / Published: 18 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Environment Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [462 KB, uploaded 20 April 2017]   |  

Abstract

The advent of the exposome concept, the advancement of mobile technology, sensors, and the “internet of things” bring exciting opportunities to exposure science. Smartphone apps, wireless devices, the downsizing of monitoring technologies, along with lower costs for such equipment makes it possible for various aspects of exposure to be measured more easily and frequently. We discuss possibilities and lay out several criteria for using smart technologies for external exposome studies. Smart technologies are evolving quickly, and while they provide great promise for advancing exposure science, many are still in developmental stages and their use in epidemiology and risk studies must be carefully considered. The most useable technologies for exposure studies at this time relate to gathering exposure-factor data, such as location and activities. Development of some environmental sensors (e.g., for some air pollutants, noise, UV) is moving towards making the use of these more reliable and accessible to research studies. The possibility of accessing such an unprecedented amount of personal data also comes with various limitations and challenges, which are discussed. The advantage of improving the collection of long term exposure factor data is that this can be combined with more “traditional” measurement data to model exposures to numerous environmental factors. View Full-Text
Keywords: exposome; exposure assessment; exposure factors; sensors; mobile technology exposome; exposure assessment; exposure factors; sensors; mobile technology
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Loh, M.; Sarigiannis, D.; Gotti, A.; Karakitsios, S.; Pronk, A.; Kuijpers, E.; Annesi-Maesano, I.; Baiz, N.; Madureira, J.; Oliveira Fernandes, E.; Jerrett, M.; Cherrie, J.W. How Sensors Might Help Define the External Exposome. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 434.

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