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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(8), 904; doi:10.3390/ijerph14080904

Effects of Lifetime Unemployment Experience and Job Insecurity on Two-Year Risk of Physician-Diagnosed Incident Depression in the German Working Population

1,2,* , 1,†
and
1,†
1
Institute of Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, Centre of Health and Society (CHS), Faculty of Medicine, University of Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
2
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 27 June 2017 / Revised: 6 August 2017 / Accepted: 8 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Work Stress and the Development of Chronic Diseases)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [291 KB, uploaded 11 August 2017]

Abstract

Unemployment and job insecurity have been reported to be associated with a higher risk of depression. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the separate and combined effects of lifetime unemployment experience and job insecurity on the incidence of depression in an unselected working population in Germany. Data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) study were used, as was a final sample of those currently employed, with complete data at baseline (2009) and follow-up (2011) restricted to those free of depression in 2009 (n = 7073). Poisson regression analysis was applied to test the prospective associations between unemployment, job insecurity, and a two-year incident of depression. Results showed that the experience of unemployment and perceived job insecurity were significantly associated with a higher risk of depression during the two-year follow-up (risk ratios 1.64; 95% confidence intervals (1.16, 2.31) and risk ratios 1.48; 95% confidence intervals (1.13, 1.92), respectively). Notably, the strongest risk was observed among participants with insecure jobs and past long-term unemployment (risk ratios 2.15; 95% confidence intervals (1.32; 3.52)). In conclusion, even during employment, the experience of lifetime unemployment led to a higher risk of depression. The combination of previous unemployment experience and anticipated job insecurity increased the risk of developing depression. Results support health promotion with special emphasis on unemployment and precarious working conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: job insecurity; unemployment; incident depression; working population job insecurity; unemployment; incident depression; working population
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Wege, N.; Angerer, P.; Li, J. Effects of Lifetime Unemployment Experience and Job Insecurity on Two-Year Risk of Physician-Diagnosed Incident Depression in the German Working Population. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 904.

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