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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 4, Issue 4 (December 2007), Pages 260-341

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Effects of α-Tocopherol on Oxidative Status and Metabolic Profile in Overweight Women
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(4), 260-267; doi:10.3390/ijerph200704040001
Received: 1 October 2007 / Accepted: 30 November 2007 / Published: 31 December 2007
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (271 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite extensive research, the effects of α-tocopherol supplementation remain controversial. Few studies have been focused on obese and overweight people. We examined the effects of α-tocopherol (AT) on the oxidative status and metabolic profile in overweight women. Sixteen overweight women between the ages
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Despite extensive research, the effects of α-tocopherol supplementation remain controversial. Few studies have been focused on obese and overweight people. We examined the effects of α-tocopherol (AT) on the oxidative status and metabolic profile in overweight women. Sixteen overweight women between the ages of 40-60 years old, received AT, 800 IU/day during 12 weeks, followed by a 6-week washout period. Blood samples were taken at the beginning and then every 6 weeks until the end of the study. AT, retinol, malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant status (TAS), selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) were quantified to evaluate the oxidative stress. The metabolic profile was estimated by measuring glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in erythrocytes and glucose, phosphate, magnesium, lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in serum. Under AT administration HbA1c, serum- MDA levels and erythrocyte GPx activity were markedly reduced. TAS, AT and Mg2+ concentrations in serum and SOD activity in erythrocytes were higher after AT treatment. Body weight; glucose, lipid and retinol concentrations, or blood cells count were unchanged. Lipid peroxidation was considerably reduced in AT treated women and also improved serum antioxidant status was observed, but the imbalanced response between erythrocyte SOD and GPx activities could affect normal response to oxidative stress. Full article
Open AccessArticle Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Health in Mandi-Gobindgarh, Punjab, India - A Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(4), 268-282; doi:10.3390/ijerph200704040002
Published: 31 December 2007
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (579 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Large number of epidemiological studies to know the effect of air pollution on the general mortality and morbidity, and the cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality are concentrated in USA and Europe. Regional differences in air pollution necessitate regional level health effects studies. Present study
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Large number of epidemiological studies to know the effect of air pollution on the general mortality and morbidity, and the cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality are concentrated in USA and Europe. Regional differences in air pollution necessitate regional level health effects studies. Present study is a cross sectional pilot study from India, an Asian country. A sample of population from an industrial town ‘Mandi Gobindgarh’ and a nonindustrial town ‘Morinda’ were selected. A cross-sectional household survey was done in both the towns. One hundred subjects were selected from each of the towns. Ambient air quality data was collected for both towns over a period of 10-months to assess seasonal variations. In the present study the average PM10 (particulate matter with ≤ 10μm aerodynamic diameter) levels in Morinda were 99.54 μg/m3 and in Mandi Gobindgarh 161.20 μg/m3. As per NAAQS the permitted levels of PM10 is 50 μg/m3 taken as annual average (arithmetic mean). Elemental analysis of the aerosol samples found the concentration levels to be higher in Mandi- Gobindgarh than Morinda. The population in Gobindgarh shows a higher prevalence of symptoms of angina and cardiovascular disease considered in the study as compared to Morinda. When the same data is viewed in terms of male and female population, the female population is found to show these symptoms marginally higher than their counterparts. Considering the results of present study it can be stated that the increased levels of different pollutants and the higher prevalence of cardiovascular symptoms in Mandi-Gobindgarh (Industrial town) than the Morinda (Non-Industrial town) is because of the association of PM pollution with cardiovascular diseases. Keeping in view the current status of literature, further studies in this direction are needed in a country like India. Such data will also be globally relevant. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of Cooking Fuels on Acute Respiratory Infections in Children in Tanzania
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(4), 283-288; doi:10.3390/ijerph200704040003
Received: 21 September 2007 / Accepted: 28 November 2007 / Published: 31 December 2007
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (65 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biomass fuels, charcoal and kerosene are the most used cooking fuels in Tanzania. Biomass fuel use has been linked to Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) in children. It is not clear whether the use of charcoal and kerosene has health advantage over biomass fuels.
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Biomass fuels, charcoal and kerosene are the most used cooking fuels in Tanzania. Biomass fuel use has been linked to Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) in children. It is not clear whether the use of charcoal and kerosene has health advantage over biomass fuels. In this study, the effects of biomass fuels, charcoal/kerosene on ARI in children under five years old in Tanzania are quantified and compared based on data from Tanzania Demographic and Health survey conducted between 2004 and 2005. Approximately 85% and 15% of children were from biomass fuels and charcoal/kerosene using homes respectively. Average ARI prevalence was about 11%. The prevalence of ARI across various fuel types used for cooking did not vary much from the national prevalence. Odds ratio for ARI, adjusting for child’s sex, age and place of residence; mother’s education, mother’s age at child birth and household living standard, indicated that the effect of biomass fuels on ARI is the same as the effect of charcoal/kerosene (OR 1.01; 95% CI: 0.78-1.42). The findings suggest that to achieve meaningful reduction of ARI prevalence in Tanzania, a shift from the use of biomass fuels, charcoal and kerosene for cooking to clean fuels such as gas and electricity may be essential. Further studies, however, are needed for concrete policy recommendation. Full article
Open AccessArticle Psychometric Evaluation of a Coping Strategies Inventory Short-Form (CSI-SF) in the Jackson Heart Study Cohort
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(4), 289-295; doi:10.3390/ijerph200704040004
Received: 17 October 2007 / Accepted: 30 November 2007 / Published: 31 December 2007
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (121 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
This study sought to establish the psychometric properties of a Coping Strategies Inventory Short Form (CSISF) by examining coping skills in the Jackson Heart Study cohort. We used exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, Pearson’s correlation, and Cronbach Alpha to examine reliability
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This study sought to establish the psychometric properties of a Coping Strategies Inventory Short Form (CSISF) by examining coping skills in the Jackson Heart Study cohort. We used exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, Pearson’s correlation, and Cronbach Alpha to examine reliability and validity in the CSI-SF that solicited responses from 5302 African American men and women between the ages of 35 and 84. One item was dropped from the 16-item CSI-SF, making it a 15-item survey. No significant effects were found for age and gender, strengthening the generalizability of the CSI-SF. The internal consistency reliability analysis revealed reliability between alpha = 0.58-0.72 for all of the scales, and all of the fit indices used to examine the CSI-SF provided support for its use as an adequate measure of coping. This study provides empirical support for utilizing this instrument in future efforts to understand the role of coping in moderating health outcomes. Full article
Open AccessArticle Quantification of Reduction in Forced Vital Capacity of Sand Stone Quarry Workers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(4), 296-300; doi:10.3390/ijerph200704040005
Received: 2 January 2007 / Accepted: 24 September 2007 / Published: 31 December 2007
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (66 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study assessed the reduction in forced vital capacity of lungs of sand stone quarry workers exposed to high respirable suspended particulate concentration. The sand stone quarry workers are engaged in different type of activities like drilling, loading and dressing. These different working
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This study assessed the reduction in forced vital capacity of lungs of sand stone quarry workers exposed to high respirable suspended particulate concentration. The sand stone quarry workers are engaged in different type of activities like drilling, loading and dressing. These different working places have different concentration of RSPM and these workers are exposed to different concentration of RSPM. It is found that exposure duration and exposure concentrations are main factors responsible to damage respiratory tract of worker. It is also revealed from the study that most of the workers are suffering from silicosis if the exposure duration is more than 15 years. Full article
Open AccessArticle Sanitary Conditions of Public Swimming Pools in Amman, Jordan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(4), 301-306; doi:10.3390/ijerph200704040006
Received: 26 February 2007 / Accepted: 4 December 2007 / Published: 31 December 2007
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (118 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study was carried out in the summer of 2005 and investigated all of active public swimming pools (85 out of 93) in Amman, the capital of Jordan. The aim of this study was to find out if these swimming pools are in
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This study was carried out in the summer of 2005 and investigated all of active public swimming pools (85 out of 93) in Amman, the capital of Jordan. The aim of this study was to find out if these swimming pools are in compliance with Jordanian Standards for Swimming Pools Water (JS 1562/2004). The pools were surveyed against the water microbial quality and other physicochemical parameters indicated in the standards. Two samples from each pool were collected for microbial analysis and pools monitoring were carried out during the afternoon of the weekends when the pools are most heavily used. The results indicated overall poor compliance with the standards. Compliance of the pools water to the microbial parameters was 56.5%, for residual chlorine 49.4%, for pH 87.7%, water temperature 48.8%, and bathing load 70.6%. The results also indicated that water microbial quality deteriorated with time. Multivariate analysis showed significant association of water contamination with time of sample collection, residual chlorine, water temperature and load of swimmers. The poor compliance was attributed to lack of proper disinfection, staff training, proper maintenance, and timely inspection. Full article
Open AccessArticle Assessment of Groundwater Quality in a Typical Rural Settlement in Southwest Nigeria
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(4), 307-318; doi:10.3390/ijerph200704040007
Received: 15 August 2007 / Accepted: 30 October 2007 / Published: 31 December 2007
Cited by 57 | PDF Full-text (142 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In most rural settlements in Nigeria, access to clean and potable water is a great challenge, resulting in water borne diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of some physical, chemical, biochemical and microbial water quality parameters in twelve
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In most rural settlements in Nigeria, access to clean and potable water is a great challenge, resulting in water borne diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of some physical, chemical, biochemical and microbial water quality parameters in twelve hand – dug wells in a typical rural area (Igbora) of southwest region of the country. Seasonal variations and proximity to pollution sources (municipal waste dumps and defecation sites) were also examined. Parameters were determined using standard procedures. All parameters were detected up to 200 m from pollution source and most of them increased in concentration during the rainy season over the dry periods, pointing to infiltrations from storm water. Coliform population, Pb, NO3- and Cd in most cases, exceeded the World Health Organization recommended thresholds for potable water. Effect of distance from pollution sources was more pronounced on fecal and total coliform counts, which decreased with increasing distance from waste dumps. The qualities of the well water samples were therefore not suitable for human consumption without adequate treatment. Regular monitoring of groundwater quality, abolishment of unhealthy waste disposal practices and introduction of modern techniques are recommended. Full article
Open AccessArticle Guidelines for Environmental Health Management in Children’s Homes in Sub-Sahara Africa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(4), 319-331; doi:10.3390/ijerph200704040008
Received: 17 April 2007 / Accepted: 24 October 2007 / Published: 31 December 2007
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (113 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The field of environmental health focuses on the relationships between human health and well being and the influence of the physical, social and societal environments. Our understanding of the environment–health interface has progressed because of two relatively recent insights: First, the recognition that
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The field of environmental health focuses on the relationships between human health and well being and the influence of the physical, social and societal environments. Our understanding of the environment–health interface has progressed because of two relatively recent insights: First, the recognition that the unprecedented environmental changes of the last half-century are affecting global population health. Secondly, the recognition that children have greater vulnerability to environmental hazards and are inadequately protected by current regulatory standards. Efforts to redress this situation have shaped the current thrust in environmental health research toward preventing further harm to children’s health. The disproportionate vulnerability of children to environmental hazards can be explained by several reasons. Children are not "little adults." It is known that children have greater risk of exposure and greater risk of harm compared to adults for many reasons that are unique to each developmental stage. Their behaviour and activity patterns bring them into greater contact with toxins. Children have important biological differences. Immature developing organs and tissues are more vulnerable to harm from toxic exposures. Immature metabolic and physiological systems less effectively protect the child from toxic exposure and effects. In addition, children have additional pathways of exposure that are not applicable to adults, e.g., in utero, via breast milk and via products such as toys, clothing, etc. Children also have a longer "shelf life." They have much more of their life ahead of them during which time they will be exposed and may develop health problems as a result. Finally, children are more often involuntarily exposed and unable to avoid exposures of their own accord [1]. Due to the AIDS catastrophe in Sub-Saharan Africa, the numbers of children in difficult circumstances have increased. To mitigate the effects of the catastrophe, charitable organizations have sprung up to establish homes for such children, especially those orphaned by AIDS or those infected with HIV. It is important to ensure that environmental health hazards and risks are minimized in these children’s homes. By use of a conceptual synthesis approach, the authors attempt to generate guidelines from literature for environmental health management in children’s homes in sub-Saharan Africa. Full article
Open AccessArticle Biosorptive Removal of Ni(Ii) from Wastewater and Industrial Effluent
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(4), 332-339; doi:10.3390/ijerph200704040009
Received: 24 August 2007 / Accepted: 5 November 2007 / Published: 31 December 2007
Cited by 26 | PDF Full-text (204 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of the present work was to investigate the removal of Ni(II) by the fresh biomass (FBM) and chemically treated leached biomass (LBM) of Calotropis procera. The scope of the work included screening of the biosorbents for their metal uptake potential,
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The objective of the present work was to investigate the removal of Ni(II) by the fresh biomass (FBM) and chemically treated leached biomass (LBM) of Calotropis procera. The scope of the work included screening of the biosorbents for their metal uptake potential, batch equilibrium, column mode removal studies and kinetic studies at varying pH (2-6), contact time, biosorbent dosages (1-25 g/L) and initial metal ion concentration (5-500 mg/L). The development of batch kinetic model and determination of order, desorption studies, column studies were investigated. It was observed that pH had marked effect on the Ni(II) uptake. Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to correlate equilibrium data on sorption of Ni(II) metallic ion by using both FBM and LBM at 28oC and pH 3 and different coefficients were calculated. It was found that both biomasses were statistically significant fit for Freundlich model. The biomass was successfully used for removal nickel from synthetic and industrial effluents and the technique appears industrially applicable and viable. Full article

Other

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Open AccessLetter Inorganic Arsenic in Drinking Water and Bladder Cancer: A Meta-Analysis for Dose-Response Assessment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(4), 340-341; doi:10.3390/ijerph200704040010
Published: 31 December 2007
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (78 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text

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