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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2007), Pages 195-259

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Research

Open AccessArticle Fluoro-edenite Fibers Induce Expression of Hsp70 and Inflammatory Response
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(3), 195-202; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007030001
Received: 1 June 2007 / Accepted: 6 September 2007 / Published: 30 September 2007
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (213 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many asbestos-like mineral fibers have been detected in the air of mountainous and volcanic areas of Italy and other parts of the world. These fibers have been suspected to be the cause of increased incidences of lung cancer and other lung diseases in
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Many asbestos-like mineral fibers have been detected in the air of mountainous and volcanic areas of Italy and other parts of the world. These fibers have been suspected to be the cause of increased incidences of lung cancer and other lung diseases in these areas. However, the mechanisms of the cellular response and defense following exposure to these microscopic fibers have not been characterized. We continue to study these mechanisms to be able to propose preventive strategies in large populations. The objective of the present study was to determine comparatively biological responses of mesothelial Met-5A and monocyte-macrophage J774 cells following exposure to two types of fluoro-edenite fibers having low and high iron content (labeled 19 and 27, respectively) obtained from Biancavilla (Sicily, Italy). The reference fiber was a non-iron fibrous tremolite from Val di Susa (Piemonte, Italy). The cells were treated with 5, 50, and 100 μg of fibrous matter per 1 ml for 72 hr. We identified several key mechanisms by which cells responded and counteracted the injury induced by these fibers. The fibers caused induction of the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), stimulated formation of reactive oxygen species (detected by using DCFH-DA as a fluorescent probe) and NO (measured as nitrite). Exposure of cells to the fibers induced lactate dehydrogenase activity and decreased viability. The fluoro-endenite type 27 was the most potent fiber tested, which indicated that iron and possibly manganese contribute significantly to this fiber toxicity. The J774 cells were more sensitive to fluoro-edenite than Met-5A cells suggesting that the primary site of the fiberinduced inflammatory response could be the macrophage rather than the pulmonary epithelium. Fluoro-edenite produces more biological alterations with respect to non-iron tremolite. Hsp70 and free radicals could be important factors in the context of mineral fiber-induced acute lung injury leading possibly to mutagenic effects. We anticipate that pharmacological blockade of the fiber-dependent cellular responses could in long term offer preventive approach to combat lung diseases induced by these fibers. Full article
Open AccessArticle Mathematical Models of Cobalt and Iron Ions Catalyzed Microwave Bacterial Deactivation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(3), 203-210; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007030002
Received: 19 June 2007 / Accepted: 29 August 2007 / Published: 30 September 2007
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (152 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Time differences for Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli survival during microwave irradiation (power 130 W) in the presence of aqueous cobalt and iron ions were investigated. Measured dependencies had "bell" shape forms with maximum bacterial viability between 1 -
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Time differences for Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli survival during microwave irradiation (power 130 W) in the presence of aqueous cobalt and iron ions were investigated. Measured dependencies had "bell" shape forms with maximum bacterial viability between 1 - 2 min becoming insignificant at 3 minutes. The deactivation time for E. faecalis, S. aureus and E.coli in the presence of metal ions were smaller compared to a water control (4 -5 min). Although various sensitivities to the metal ions were observed, S. aureus and E. coli and were the most sensitive for cobalt and iron, respectively. The rapid reduction of viable bacteria during microwave treatment in the presence of metal ions could be explained by increased metal ion penetration into bacteria. Additionally, microwave irradiation may have increased the kinetic energy of the metal ions resulting in lower survival rates. The proposed mathematical model for microwave heating took into account the "growth" and "death" factors of the bacteria, forming second degree polynomial functions. Good relationships were found between the proposed mathematical models and the experimental data for bacterial deactivation (coefficient of correlation 0.91 - 0.99). Full article
Open AccessArticle Dose-related Increased Binding of Nickel to Chromatin Proteins; and Changes to DNA Concentration in the Liver of Guinea Pigs Treated with Nigerian Light Crude Oil
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(3), 211-215; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007030003
Received: 30 April 2007 / Accepted: 14 September 2007 / Published: 30 September 2007
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (141 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The alteration in nuclear DNA concentration and the concomitant binding of xenobiotics (alkylating agents, heavy metals, etc.) to chromatin constituents may adversely affect gene structure and/or function, and thus initiate carcinogenesis. Binding of nickel to chromatin DNA has been reported to cause DNA
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The alteration in nuclear DNA concentration and the concomitant binding of xenobiotics (alkylating agents, heavy metals, etc.) to chromatin constituents may adversely affect gene structure and/or function, and thus initiate carcinogenesis. Binding of nickel to chromatin DNA has been reported to cause DNA damage (cross-links, single-strand breaks), and although many soluble nickel compounds and complexes have been shown to bind to chromatin, porphyrin-complexed nickel (PCN) in crude oils has not been studied. We have determined the doserelated increases in total and chromatin DNA concentrations, and the differential distribution (binding) of PCN (crude oil nickel-CON) to chromatin constituents in livers of adult male guinea pigs treated with 1.25, 2.50 and 5.0 ml/kg bw Nigerian Bonny light crude oil (BLCO) by intraperitoneal injection. The results showed large BLCO-induced increases in total DNA concentrations of 424%, 632% and 436% at 1.25, 2.50 and 5.0 ml/kg bw BLCO respectively over the untreated controls; while it induced equally large increases in chromatin DNA concentrations of 585% and 200% at 2.50 and 5.0 ml/kg bw respectively. In both cases, maximum increases occurred at 2.50 ml/kg bw BLCO. The distribution of PCN in BLCO between chromatin DNA and chromatin proteins (histones and non-histones) showed that at 2.50 and 5.0 ml/kg bw BLCO, nickel content in chromatin DNA reduced by 25% and 12.5% respectively over the controls; while its content in chromatin proteins also reduced by 26%; but increased by 166% at 2.50 and 5.0 ml/kg bw BLCO, respectively over the untreated controls. However, in intra-chromatin comparison, 38.8% more PCN bound to chromatin DNA than to chromatin proteins at 2.50 ml/kg bw; but at 5.0 ml/kg bw BLCO, 90.4% more PCN bound to chromatin proteins than to chromatin DNA. These results show a greater affinity of PCN in BLCO for chromatin proteins over chromatin DNA which may have played a role in the increased DNA concentrations. Also, the results may add critical information to understanding the reactions of porphyrin-complexed nickel in crude oils with chromatin since this has not been studied before. Furthermore, the probable carcinogenicity of BLCO may be implied. Full article
Open AccessArticle Genotoxicity of Air Borne Particulates Assessed by Comet and the Salmonella Mutagenicity Test in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(3), 216-223; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007030004
Received: 4 September 2007 / Accepted: 22 September 2007 / Published: 30 September 2007
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (167 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fine airborne respirable particulates less than 10 micrometer (PM10) are considered one of the top environmental public health concerns, since they contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are among the major carcinogenic compounds found in urban air. The objective of this study is
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Fine airborne respirable particulates less than 10 micrometer (PM10) are considered one of the top environmental public health concerns, since they contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are among the major carcinogenic compounds found in urban air. The objective of this study is to assess the genotoxicity of the ambient PM10 collected at 11 urban sites in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The PM10 extractable organic matter (EOM) was examined for its genotoxicity by the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) comet assay and the Salmonella mutagenicity (Ames) test .Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to quantify 16 PAH compounds in four sites. Samples from oil refinery and heavy diesel vehicles traffic sites showed significant DNA damage causing comet in 20-44% of the cells with tail moments ranging from 0.5-2.0 compared to samples from petrol driven cars and residential area, with comet in less than 2% of the cells and tail moments of < 0.02.In the Ames test, polluted sites showed indirect mutagenic response and caused 20-56 rev/ m3, mean while residential and reference sites caused 2-15 rev /m3. The genotoxicity of the EOM in both tests directly correlated with the amount of organic particulate and the PAHs concentrations in the air samples. The PAHs concentrations ranged between 0.83 ng/m3 in industrial and heavy diesel vehicles traffic sites to 0.18 ng /m3 in the residential area. Benzo(ghi)pyrene was the major PAH components and at one site it represented 65.4 % of the total PAHs. Samples of the oil refinery site were more genotoxic in the SCGE assay than samples from the heavy diesel vehicles traffic site, despite the fact that both sites contain almost similar amount of PAHs. The opposite was true for the mutagenicity in the Ames test. This could be due to the nature of the EOM in both sites. These findings confirm the genotoxic potency of the PM10 organic extracts to which urban populations are exposed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effect of Arsenic and Chromium on the Serum Amino-Transferases Activity in Indian Major Carp, Labeo rohita
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(3), 224-227; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007030005
Received: 4 May 2007 / Accepted: 5 September 2007 / Published: 30 September 2007
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (69 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Arsenic and hexavalent chromium toxicity results from their ability to interact with sulfahydryl groups of proteins and enzymes, and to substitute phosphorus in a variety of biochemical reactions. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT; E.C: 2.6.1.2) and Aspartate amino transferase (AST; EC 2.6.1.1) play a crucial
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Arsenic and hexavalent chromium toxicity results from their ability to interact with sulfahydryl groups of proteins and enzymes, and to substitute phosphorus in a variety of biochemical reactions. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT; E.C: 2.6.1.2) and Aspartate amino transferase (AST; EC 2.6.1.1) play a crucial role in transamination reactions and can be used as potential biomarkers to indicate hepatotoxicity and cellular damage. While histopathological studies in liver tissue require more time and expertise, simple and reliable biochemical analysis of ALT and AST can be used for a rapid assessment of tissue and cellular damage within 96 h. The main objective of this study was to determine the acute effects of arsenic and hexavalent chromium on the activity of ALT and AST in the Indian major carp, Labeo rohita for 24 h and 96 h. Significant increase in the activity of ALT (P < 0.01) from controls in arsenic exposed fish indicates serious hepatic damage and distress condition to the fish. However, no such significant changes were observed in chromium-exposed fish suggesting that arsenic is more toxic to the fish. These findings indicate that ALT and AST are candidate biomarkers for arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity in Labeo rohita. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of HACCP Plans of Food Industries: Case Study Conducted by the Servizio di Igiene degli Alimenti e della Nutrizione (Food and Nutrition Health Service) of the Local Health Authority of Foggia, Italy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(3), 228-232; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007030006
Received: 4 September 2007 / Accepted: 22 September 2007 / Published: 30 September 2007
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (53 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With respect to food safety, many works have studied the effectiveness of self-monitoring plans of food companies, designed using the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) method. On the other hand, indepth research has not been made concerning the adherence of the
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With respect to food safety, many works have studied the effectiveness of self-monitoring plans of food companies, designed using the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) method. On the other hand, indepth research has not been made concerning the adherence of the plans to HACCP standards. During our research, we evaluated 116 self-monitoring plans adopted by food companies located in the territory of the Local Health Authority (LHA) of Foggia, Italy. The general errors (terminology, philosophy and redundancy) and the specific errors (transversal plan, critical limits, hazard specificity, and lack of procedures) were standardized. Concerning the general errors, terminological errors pertain to half the plans examined, 47% include superfluous elements and 60% have repetitive subjects. With regards to the specific errors, 77% of the plans examined contained specific errors. The evaluation has pointed out the lack of comprehension of the HACCP system by the food companies and has allowed the Servizio di Igiene degli Alimenti e della Nutrizione (Food and Nutrition Health Service), in its capacity as a control body, to intervene with the companies in order to improve designing HACCP plans. Full article
Open AccessArticle Mapping Cigarettes Similarities using Cluster Analysis Methods
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(3), 233-242; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007030007
Received: 18 June 2007 / Accepted: 28 August 2007 / Published: 30 September 2007
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of the research was to investigate the relationship and/or occurrences in and between chemical composition information (tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide), market information (brand, manufacturer, price), and public health information (class, health warning) as well as clustering of a sample of cigarette
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The aim of the research was to investigate the relationship and/or occurrences in and between chemical composition information (tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide), market information (brand, manufacturer, price), and public health information (class, health warning) as well as clustering of a sample of cigarette data. A number of thirty cigarette brands have been analyzed. Six categorical (cigarette brand, manufacturer, health warnings, class) and four continuous (tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide concentrations and package price) variables were collected for investigation of chemical composition, market information and public health information. Multiple linear regression and two clusterization techniques have been applied. The study revealed interesting remarks. The carbon monoxide concentration proved to be linked with tar and nicotine concentration. The applied clusterization methods identified groups of cigarette brands that shown similar characteristics. The tar and carbon monoxide concentrations were the main criteria used in clusterization. An analysis of a largest sample could reveal more relevant and useful information regarding the similarities between cigarette brands. Full article
Open AccessArticle Qat Habit in Yemen Society: A Causative Factor for Oral Periodontal Diseases
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(3), 243-247; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007030008
Received: 14 May 2007 / Accepted: 6 September 2007 / Published: 30 September 2007
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (119 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effect of a common habit among Yemeni population on the periodontal status was investigated. This cross-sectional study was done on 2500 Yemenis with mean age 27.01 years (1818 males and 682 females). Among these 1528 were qat chewers and 972 were non-chewers.
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The effect of a common habit among Yemeni population on the periodontal status was investigated. This cross-sectional study was done on 2500 Yemenis with mean age 27.01 years (1818 males and 682 females). Among these 1528 were qat chewers and 972 were non-chewers. Detailed questionnaire and pre-designed scoring system for the periodontal status were employed for each case. Study results indicated that out of 972 non-chewers 116(12%) had periodontal pocketing and 18 (1.9%) cases had gingival recession. On the other hand, out of 1528 chewers, 468 (31.8%) had periodontal pockets and 98 (6.4%) with gum bleeding, p<0.05. These effects were found to increase with increased frequency and duration of chewing. It was concluded that habit of qat can cause damage to the periodontal ligament as pocketing and gum recession. Full article
Open AccessArticle HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors Assessment of Chinese Students: A Questionnaire Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(3), 248-253; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007030009
Received: 12 August 2007 / Accepted: 16 September 2007 / Published: 30 September 2007
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (218 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study was to assess students' knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV and AIDS. A questionnaire was administered to a cross section of 259 Chinese undergraduates. Respondents were asked to provide information about knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Study results
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The objective of this study was to assess students' knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV and AIDS. A questionnaire was administered to a cross section of 259 Chinese undergraduates. Respondents were asked to provide information about knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Study results indicated that the majority of undergraduates had a moderate level of HIV and AIDS knowledge, acceptance and attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS. Boys had more acceptance and positive attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS than girls. Students majoring in medicine performed better (more knowledgeable and accepting) than non-medical students. Differences between students with various monthly expenditures were found-- 6.2% of students had 3-5 sexual partners which has rarely been found in Chinese students; most students did not know HIV VCT centers and most students did not show their confidence for controlling of HIV and AIDS in China. In conclusion, students’ knowledge about HIV/AIDS was uneven. A peer educational program to talk about self esteem, healthy sexual attitudes, being human-accepting and loving should be developed in the near future. Full article
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Effect of a Health Education Campaign of HIV by Using an Analytical Hierarchy Process Method
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2007, 4(3), 254-259; doi:10.3390/ijerph2007030010
Received: 12 August 2007 / Accepted: 16 September 2007 / Published: 30 September 2007
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (173 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study was designed to understand the status of HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) among different populations and to provide scientific evidences for further health education. Three rounds of questionnaires were administered among service industry workers who were selected through stratified cluster
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This study was designed to understand the status of HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) among different populations and to provide scientific evidences for further health education. Three rounds of questionnaires were administered among service industry workers who were selected through stratified cluster sampling. Study subjects included hotel attendants, employees of beauty parlors and service workers of transportation industry. Data were analyzed using the analytical hierarchy process. All demonstrated high KAP overall. Synthetic scoring indexes of the three surveys were above 75%. However, the correct response rate on questions whether mosquito bite can transmit HIV/AIDS and what is the relationship between STD with HIV was unsatisfactory (lower than expected); and their attitudes towards people living with HIV and AIDS need to be improved. Moreover, the effect of health education on these groups was unclear. In conclusion, analytical hierarchy process is a valid method in estimating overall effect of HIV/AIDS health education. Although the present status of HIV/AIDS KAP among the service industry workers was relatively good, greater efforts should be made to improve their HIV transmission knowledge, attitude and understanding of the relationship between STDs and HIV. Full article

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