- freely available
Energies 2017, 10(4), 421; doi:10.3390/en10040421
2. IoT Technologies for Smart Cities
- Home Area Networks (HAN) which use short-range standards like, ZigBee, Dash7, and Wi-Fi. All monitoring and control components in a home are connected by the HAN.
- Wide Area Networks (WAN), provide communication between customers and distribution utilities which require much broader coverage than HAN and for implementation needs fiber cable or broadband wireless like 3G and LTE.
- Field Area Networks, which are used for connection between customers and substations .
2.1. Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID)
2.2. Near Field Communication (NFC)
2.3. Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (LWPAN)
2.4. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)
2.6. 3G and Long Term Evolution (LTE)
2.9. Smart Cities Platforms and Standards
3. Actual IoT Applications for Smart Cities
3.1. Smart Homes
3.2. Smart Parking Lots
3.4. Water and Weather Systems
3.5. Transportation & Vehicular Traffic
3.6. Environmental Pollution
3.7. Surveillance Systems
4. IoT Potential Applications for Smart Cities
4.1. Smart Cities and Communities
4.2. Smart Homes and Buildings
4.3. Responsive Customers
4.4. Smart Energy and Smart Grids
5. Practical Experience around the World
5.1. Amsterdam, The Netherlands
5.2. Chicago and New York, USA
5.3. Busan, South Korea
5.4. Nice, France
5.5. Padova, Italy
5.6. Business Models and Scaling-Up Practical Smart Grids
- Temper: The value is creating business opportunities, the business model is open network and the pattern is open.
- Geneva: The value is developing high-speed networks and smart grids for energy management, the business model is open access and the pattern is open.
- Seoul: The value is creating a city as a product, the business model is a full-service provider, and the pattern is unbundling.
- London: The value is managing climate change, the business model is the full-service provider, and the pattern is unbundling .
6.1. Security and Privacy
6.4. Large Scale
6.5. Legal and Social Aspects
6.6. Big Data
6.7. Sensor Networks
6.8. DR Barriers
7. Conclusions, Remarks and Future Trends
Conflicts of Interest
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|Amsterdam ||Traffic-reduction, energy conservation, and improvement of the security level|
|Barcelona [62,63,64,65,66]||Accomplishment of sensor technologies, utilizing the information evaluation of traffic flows to design new bus networks as well as the accomplishment of smart traffic|
|Stockholm ||Providing global fiber optic networks all over Stockholm|
|Santa Cruz ||Analyzing the information of criminal actions to predict the requirements of police and to find the maximum presence of police in the needed regions|
|Songdo, Korea ||Fully automated buildings, smart street lighting, smart meters and telepresence|
|PlanIT Valley, Portugal ||Deployment of 100,000,000 sensors|
|Fujisawa, Japan ||Decrease carbon footprint by 70%|
|Groening, The Netherlands ||Improvement of public transportation systems with real-time access to locationss and schedules|
|Norfolk, England ||Improvement of data delivery services, data collection and system analysis for the municipality|
|Santander, Spain ||Smart parking systems|
|Vienna, Austria ||Increasing energy efficiency and climate protection, reduction in carbon footprint|
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