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Materials 2017, 10(3), 315; doi:10.3390/ma10030315

Microwave-Assisted Catalytic Synthesis of Bio-Based Copolymers from Waste Cooking Oil

1
Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2P5, Canada
2
Department of Chemistry, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Armando J. D. Silvestre
Received: 9 January 2017 / Revised: 10 March 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 20 March 2017
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Abstract

Solvent-free copolymerization of epoxides derived from fatty esters of waste cooking oil with phthalic anhydride using (salen)CrIIICl as catalyst and n-Bu4NCl/DMAP (tetrabutylammonium chloride/4-(dimethylamino)pyridine) as co-catalysts was carried out for the first time under microwave irradiation, where reaction time was reduced from a number of hours to minutes. The polyesters were obtained with molecular weight (Mw = 3100–6750 g/mol) and dispersity values (D = 1.18–1.92) when (salen)CrIIICl/n-Bu4NCl was used as catalysts. Moreover, in the case of DMAP as a co-catalyst, polyesters with improved molecular weight (Mw = 5500–6950 g/mol) and narrow dispersity values (D = 1.07–1.28) were obtained even at reduced concentrations of (salen)CrIIICl and DMAP. The obtained products were characterized and evaluated by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) Techniques. View Full-Text
Keywords: waste cooking oil; phthalic anhydride; copolymerization; microwaves waste cooking oil; phthalic anhydride; copolymerization; microwaves
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Shahi, M.N.; Arshad, M.; Ullah, A. Microwave-Assisted Catalytic Synthesis of Bio-Based Copolymers from Waste Cooking Oil. Materials 2017, 10, 315.

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