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Materials, Volume 10, Issue 3 (March 2017)

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Cover Story From diapers to agricultural use, from drug release to self-healing concrete, superabsorbent [...] Read more.
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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Special Issue: 3D Printing for Biomedical Engineering
Materials 2017, 10(3), 243; doi:10.3390/ma10030243
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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Abstract
Three-dimensional (3D) printing has a long history of applications in biomedical engineering. The development and expansion of traditional biomedical applications are being advanced and enriched by new printing technologies. New biomedical applications such as bioprinting are highly attractive and trendy. This Special Issue
[...] Read more.
Three-dimensional (3D) printing has a long history of applications in biomedical engineering. The development and expansion of traditional biomedical applications are being advanced and enriched by new printing technologies. New biomedical applications such as bioprinting are highly attractive and trendy. This Special Issue aims to provide readers with a glimpse of the recent profile of 3D printing in biomedical research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 3D Printing for Biomedical Engineering)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle The Effect of Different Storage Media on Color Stability of Self-Adhesive Composite Resin Cements for up to One Year
Materials 2017, 10(3), 300; doi:10.3390/ma10030300
Received: 15 February 2017 / Revised: 10 March 2017 / Accepted: 11 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term color stability of eight self-adhesive composite resin cements (SACRCs) after storage in diverse media for up to one year. 480 discs (diameter: 12 mm/thickness: 1.0 ± 0.05 mm) were fabricated (n = 60/SACRC):
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term color stability of eight self-adhesive composite resin cements (SACRCs) after storage in diverse media for up to one year. 480 discs (diameter: 12 mm/thickness: 1.0 ± 0.05 mm) were fabricated (n = 60/SACRC): (1) BeautyCem (BEA); (2) Bifix SE (BIF); (3) Clearfil SA Cement Automix (CLE); (4) RelyX Unicem 2 Automix (RXU); (5) SeT (SET); (6) SmartCem 2 (SMC); (7) SoloCem (SOC); and (8) SpeedCEM (SPC). After polishing, specimens were immersed in (a) red wine (RW); (b) curry-solution (CU); (c) cress-solution (CR); and (d) distilled water (DW) at 37 °C and measured after 7, 28, 90, 180, and 365 days for color differences (ΔE) and water absorption (WA). Non-aged specimens were used as baselines. After 365 days, all of the discs were polished and their ΔE was measured. Data were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, partial-eta-squared/ηP2, 3-/1-way ANOVA with Tukey-HSD post-hoc test (α = 0.05). Significant differences occurred between all SACRCs for WA (p ≤ 0.003), except in RXU and in SET and in ΔE (p ≤ 0.002), except in SET and SPC. The significantly highest WA presented in SOC; the lowest showed in BEA. Significant ΔE differences and a decrease after polishing between all storage media were found (p < 0.001) with highest values for RW, followed by CU, CR, and DW. The lowest ΔE was measured for CLE, followed by SOC, BIF, RXU, BEA, SPC, SET, and SMC (p < 0.001) and increased significantly during aging. The highest ΔE decrease presented in BEA. SACRCs showed an increase in WA/ΔE within total aging time. Discoloration could not be removed completely by polishing. SACRCs need to be carefully selected for restorations in the esthetical zone with visible restoration margins. Polishing can significantly reduce the marginal discoloration. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Improvement of Fracture Toughness in Epoxy Nanocomposites through Chemical Hybridization of Carbon Nanotubes and Alumina
Materials 2017, 10(3), 301; doi:10.3390/ma10030301
Received: 31 January 2017 / Revised: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
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Abstract
The current study investigated the effect of adding a carbon nanotube–alumina (CNT–Al2O3) hybrid on the fracture toughness of epoxy nanocomposites. The CNT–Al2O3 hybrid was synthesised by growing CNTs on Al2O3 particles via the
[...] Read more.
The current study investigated the effect of adding a carbon nanotube–alumina (CNT–Al2O3) hybrid on the fracture toughness of epoxy nanocomposites. The CNT–Al2O3 hybrid was synthesised by growing CNTs on Al2O3 particles via the chemical vapour deposition method. The CNTs were strongly attached onto the Al2O3 particles, which served to transport and disperse the CNTs homogenously, and to prevent agglomeration in the CNTs. The experimental results demonstrated that the CNT–Al2O3 hybrid-filled epoxy nanocomposites showed improvement in terms of the fracture toughness, as indicated by an increase of up to 26% in the critical stress intensity factor, K1C, compared to neat epoxy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Failure Micromechanics and Toughening Mechanisms of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle The Synthesis of a Core-Shell Photocatalyst Material YF3:Ho3+@TiO2 and Investigation of Its Photocatalytic Properties
Materials 2017, 10(3), 302; doi:10.3390/ma10030302
Received: 30 December 2016 / Revised: 17 February 2017 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, YF3:Ho3+@TiO2 core-shell nanomaterials were prepared by hydrolysis of tetra-n-butyl titanate (TBOT) using polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 (PVP) as the coupling agent. Characterization methods including X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS)
[...] Read more.
In this paper, YF3:Ho3+@TiO2 core-shell nanomaterials were prepared by hydrolysis of tetra-n-butyl titanate (TBOT) using polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 (PVP) as the coupling agent. Characterization methods including X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) under TEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), fluorescence spectrometry, ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and electron spin resonance (ESR) were used to characterize the properties and working mechanism of the prepared photocatalyst material. They indicated that the core phase YF3 nanoparticles were successfully coated with a TiO2 shell and the length of the composite was roughly 100 nm. The Ho3+ single-doped YF3:Ho3+@TiO2 displayed strong visible absorption peaks with wavelengths of 450, 537, and 644 nm, respectively. By selecting these three peaks as excitation wavelengths, we could observe 288 nm (5D45I8) ultraviolet emission, which confirmed that there was indeed an energy transfer from YF3:Ho3+ to anatase TiO2. In addition, this paper investigated the influences of different TBOT dosages on photocatalysis performance of the as-prepared photocatalyst material. Results showed that the YF3:Ho3+@TiO2 core-shell nanomaterial was an advanced visible-light-driven catalyst, which decomposed approximately 67% of rhodamine b (RhB) and 34.6% of phenol after 10 h of photocatalysis reaction. Compared with the blank experiment, the photocatalysis efficiency was significantly improved. Finally, the visible-light-responsive photocatalytic mechanism of YF3:Ho3+@TiO2 core-shell materials and the influencing factors of photocatalytic degradation were investigated to study the apparent kinetics, which provides a theoretical basis for improving the structural design and functions of this new type of catalytic material. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Novel PEFC Application for Deuterium Isotope Separation
Materials 2017, 10(3), 303; doi:10.3390/ma10030303
Received: 18 February 2017 / Revised: 14 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
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Abstract
The use of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) with a Nafion membrane for isotopic separation of deuterium (D) was investigated. Mass analysis at the cathode side indicated that D diffused through the membrane and participated in an isotope exchange reaction. The exchange
[...] Read more.
The use of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) with a Nafion membrane for isotopic separation of deuterium (D) was investigated. Mass analysis at the cathode side indicated that D diffused through the membrane and participated in an isotope exchange reaction. The exchange of D with protium (H) in H2O was facilitated by a Pt catalyst. The anodic data showed that the separation efficiency was dependent on the D concentration in the source gas, whereby the water produced during the operation of the PEFC was more enriched in D as the D concentration of the source gas was increased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells)
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Open AccessArticle Xylan-Modified-Based Hydrogels with Temperature/pH Dual Sensitivity and Controllable Drug Delivery Behavior
Materials 2017, 10(3), 304; doi:10.3390/ma10030304
Received: 20 January 2017 / Revised: 24 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
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Abstract
Among the natural macromolecules potentially used as the scaffold material in hydrogels, xylan has aroused great interest in many fields because of its biocompatibility, low toxicity, and biodegradability. In this work, new pH and thermoresponsive hydrogels were prepared by the cross-linking polymerization of
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Among the natural macromolecules potentially used as the scaffold material in hydrogels, xylan has aroused great interest in many fields because of its biocompatibility, low toxicity, and biodegradability. In this work, new pH and thermoresponsive hydrogels were prepared by the cross-linking polymerization of maleic anhydride-modified xylan (MAHX) with N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) and acrylic acid (AA) under UV irradiation to form MAHX-g-P(NIPAm-co-AA) hydrogels. The pore volume, the mechanical properties, and the release rate for drugs of hydrogels could be controlled by the degree of substitution of MAHX. These hydrogels were characterized by swelling ability, lower critical solution temperature (LCST), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), and SEM. Furthermore, the cumulative release rate was investigated for acetylsalicylic acid and theophylline, as well as the cytocompatibility MAHX-based hydrogels. Results showed that MAHX-based hydrogels exhibited excellent swelling–deswelling properties, uniform porous structure, and the temperature/pH dual sensitivity. In vitro, the cumulative release rate of acetylsalicylic acid for MAHX-based hydrogels was higher than that for theophylline, and in the gastrointestinal sustained drug release study, the acetylsalicylic acid release rate was extremely slow during the initial 3 h in the gastric fluid (24.26%), and then the cumulative release rate reached to 90.5% after sustained release for 5 h in simulated intestinal fluid. The cytotoxicity experiment demonstrated that MAHX-based hydrogels could promote cell proliferation and had satisfactory biocompatibility with NIH3T3 cells. These results indicated that MAHX-based hydrogels, as new drug carriers, had favorable behavior for intestinal-targeted drug delivery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Porous Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Process Parameter Optimization of Extrusion-Based 3D Metal Printing Utilizing PW–LDPE–SA Binder System
Materials 2017, 10(3), 305; doi:10.3390/ma10030305
Received: 12 January 2017 / Revised: 23 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
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Abstract
Recently, with a broadening range of available materials and alteration of feeding processes, several extrusion-based 3D printing processes for metal materials have been developed. An emerging process is applicable for the fabrication of metal parts into electronics and composites. In this paper, some
[...] Read more.
Recently, with a broadening range of available materials and alteration of feeding processes, several extrusion-based 3D printing processes for metal materials have been developed. An emerging process is applicable for the fabrication of metal parts into electronics and composites. In this paper, some critical parameters of extrusion-based 3D printing processes were optimized by a series of experiments with a melting extrusion printer. The raw materials were copper powder and a thermoplastic organic binder system and the system included paraffin wax, low density polyethylene, and stearic acid (PW–LDPE–SA). The homogeneity and rheological behaviour of the raw materials, the strength of the green samples, and the hardness of the sintered samples were investigated. Moreover, the printing and sintering parameters were optimized with an orthogonal design method. The influence factors in regard to the ultimate tensile strength of the green samples can be described as follows: infill degree > raster angle > layer thickness. As for the sintering process, the major factor on hardness is sintering temperature, followed by holding time and heating rate. The highest hardness of the sintered samples was very close to the average hardness of commercially pure copper material. Generally, the extrusion-based printing process for producing metal materials is a promising strategy because it has some advantages over traditional approaches for cost, efficiency, and simplicity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hybrid Coatings Enriched with Tetraethoxysilane for Corrosion Mitigation of Hot-Dip Galvanized Steel in Chloride Contaminated Simulated Concrete Pore Solutions
Materials 2017, 10(3), 306; doi:10.3390/ma10030306
Received: 26 January 2017 / Revised: 8 March 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
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Abstract
Hybrid sol-gel coatings, named U(X):TEOS, based on ureasilicate matrices (U(X)) enriched with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), were synthesized. The influence of TEOS addition was studied on both the structure of the hybrid sol-gel films as well as on the electrochemical properties. The effect of TEOS
[...] Read more.
Hybrid sol-gel coatings, named U(X):TEOS, based on ureasilicate matrices (U(X)) enriched with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), were synthesized. The influence of TEOS addition was studied on both the structure of the hybrid sol-gel films as well as on the electrochemical properties. The effect of TEOS on the structure of the hybrid sol-gel films was investigated by solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The dielectric properties of the different materials were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The corrosion behavior of the hybrid coatings on HDGS was studied in chloride-contaminated simulated concrete pore solutions (SCPS) by polarization resistance measurements. The roughness of the HDGS coated with hybrids was also characterized by atomic force microscopy. The structural characterization of the hybrid materials proved the effective reaction between Jeffamine® and 3-isocyanate propyltriethoxysilane (ICPTES) and indicated that the addition of TEOS does not seem to affect the organic structure or to increase the degree of condensation of the hybrid materials. Despite the apparent lack of influence on the hybrids architecture, the polarization resistance measurements confirmed that TEOS addition improves the corrosion resistance of the hybrid coatings (U(X):TEOS) in chloride-contaminated SCPS when compared to samples prepared without any TEOS (U(X)). This behavior could be related to the decrease in roughness of the hybrid coatings (due TEOS addition) and to the different metal coating interaction resulting from the increase of the inorganic component in the hybrid matrix. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Biodegradation Resistance and Bioactivity of Hydroxyapatite Enhanced Mg-Zn Composites via Selective Laser Melting
Materials 2017, 10(3), 307; doi:10.3390/ma10030307
Received: 27 January 2017 / Revised: 8 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
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Abstract
Mg-Zn alloys have attracted great attention as implant biomaterials due to their biodegradability and biomechanical compatibility. However, their clinical application was limited due to the too rapid degradation. In the study, hydroxyapatite (HA) was incorporated into Mg-Zn alloy via selective laser melting. Results
[...] Read more.
Mg-Zn alloys have attracted great attention as implant biomaterials due to their biodegradability and biomechanical compatibility. However, their clinical application was limited due to the too rapid degradation. In the study, hydroxyapatite (HA) was incorporated into Mg-Zn alloy via selective laser melting. Results showed that the degradation rate slowed down due to the decrease of grain size and the formation of protective layer of bone-like apatite. Moreover, the grain size continually decreased with increasing HA content, which was attributed to the heterogeneous nucleation and increased number of nucleation particles in the process of solidification. At the same time, the amount of bone-like apatite increased because HA could provide favorable areas for apatite nucleation. Besides, HA also enhanced the hardness due to the fine grain strengthening and second phase strengthening. However, some pores occurred owing to the agglomerate of HA when its content was excessive, which decreased the biodegradation resistance. These results demonstrated that the Mg-Zn/HA composites were potential implant biomaterials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Negative Temperature Dependence of Recrystallized Grain Size: Formulation and Experimental Confirmation on Copper
Materials 2017, 10(3), 308; doi:10.3390/ma10030308
Received: 7 December 2016 / Revised: 21 February 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 21 March 2017
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Abstract
The catalyzing effect on nucleation of recrystallization from existing grains resulting from previous lower temperature deformation is analyzed, analogous to the size effect of foreign nucleus in heterogeneous nucleation. Analytical formulation of the effective nucleation site for recrystallization leads to a negative temperature
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The catalyzing effect on nucleation of recrystallization from existing grains resulting from previous lower temperature deformation is analyzed, analogous to the size effect of foreign nucleus in heterogeneous nucleation. Analytical formulation of the effective nucleation site for recrystallization leads to a negative temperature dependence of recrystallized grain size of metals. Non-isochronal annealing—where annealing time is set just enough for the completion of recrystallization at different temperatures—is conducted on pure copper after severe plastic deformation. More homogeneous and smaller grains are obtained at higher annealing temperature. The good fit between analytical and experimental results unveils the intrinsic feature of this negative temperature dependence of recrystallized grain size. Full article
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Open AccessArticle ZT Optimization: An Application Focus
Materials 2017, 10(3), 309; doi:10.3390/ma10030309
Received: 3 February 2017 / Revised: 5 March 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
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Abstract
Significant research has been performed on the challenge of improving thermoelectric materials, with maximum peak figure of merit, ZT, the most common target. We use an approximate thermoelectric material model, matched to real materials, to demonstrate that when an application is known, average
[...] Read more.
Significant research has been performed on the challenge of improving thermoelectric materials, with maximum peak figure of merit, ZT, the most common target. We use an approximate thermoelectric material model, matched to real materials, to demonstrate that when an application is known, average ZT is a significantly better optimization target. We quantify this difference with some examples, with one scenario showing that changing the doping to increase peak ZT by 19% can lead to a performance drop of 16%. The importance of average ZT means that the temperature at which the ZT peak occurs should be given similar weight to the value of the peak. An ideal material for an application operates across the maximum peak ZT, otherwise maximum performance occurs when the peak value is reduced in order to improve the peak position. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Thermoelectric Materials)
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Open AccessArticle In-Situ Studies of Structure Transformation and Al Coordination of KAl(MoO4)2 during Heating by High Temperature Raman and 27Al NMR Spectroscopies
Materials 2017, 10(3), 310; doi:10.3390/ma10030310
Received: 14 February 2017 / Revised: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
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Abstract
Recent interest in optimizing composition and synthesis conditions of functional crystals, and the further exploration of new possible candidates for tunable solid-state lasers, has led to significant research on compounds in this family MIMIII(MVIO4)2
[...] Read more.
Recent interest in optimizing composition and synthesis conditions of functional crystals, and the further exploration of new possible candidates for tunable solid-state lasers, has led to significant research on compounds in this family MIMIII(MVIO4)2 (MI = alkali metal, MIII = Al, In, Sc, Fe, Bi, lanthanide; MVI = Mo, W). The vibrational modes, structure transformation, and Al coordination of crystalline, glassy, and molten states of KAl(MoO4)2 have been investigated by in-situ high temperature Raman scattering and 27Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) spectroscopy, together with first principles density functional simulation of room temperature Raman spectrum. The results showed that, under the present fast quenching conditions, Al is present predominantly in [AlO6] octahedra in both KAl(MoO4)2 glass and melt, with the tetrahedrally coordinated Al being minor at approximately 2.7%. The effect of K+, from ordered arrangement in the crystal to random distribution in the melt, on the local chemical environment of Al, was also revealed. The distribution and quantitative analysis of different Al coordination subspecies are final discussed and found to be dependent on the thermal history of the glass samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Cellulose Nanofiber/AlOOH Aerogel for Flame Retardant and Thermal Insulation
Materials 2017, 10(3), 311; doi:10.3390/ma10030311
Received: 19 January 2017 / Revised: 6 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4574 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cellulose nanofiber/AlOOH aerogel for flame retardant and thermal insulation was successfully prepared through a hydrothermal method. Their flame retardant and thermal insulation properties were investigated. The morphology image of the cellulose nanofiber/AlOOH exhibited spherical AlOOH with an average diameter of 0.5 μm that
[...] Read more.
Cellulose nanofiber/AlOOH aerogel for flame retardant and thermal insulation was successfully prepared through a hydrothermal method. Their flame retardant and thermal insulation properties were investigated. The morphology image of the cellulose nanofiber/AlOOH exhibited spherical AlOOH with an average diameter of 0.5 μm that was wrapped by cellulose nanofiber or adhered to them. Cellulose nanofiber/AlOOH composite aerogels exhibited excellent flame retardant and thermal insulation properties through the flammability test, which indicated that the as-prepared composite aerogels would have a promising future in the application of some important areas such as protection of lightweight construction materials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle New Developments in Cathodoluminescence Spectroscopy for the Study of Luminescent Materials
Materials 2017, 10(3), 312; doi:10.3390/ma10030312
Received: 22 January 2017 / Revised: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
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Abstract
Herein, we describe three advanced techniques for cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy that have recently been developed in our laboratories. The first is a new method to accurately determine the CL-efficiency of thin layers of phosphor powders. When a wide band phosphor with a band
[...] Read more.
Herein, we describe three advanced techniques for cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy that have recently been developed in our laboratories. The first is a new method to accurately determine the CL-efficiency of thin layers of phosphor powders. When a wide band phosphor with a band gap (Eg > 5 eV) is bombarded with electrons, charging of the phosphor particles will occur, which eventually leads to erroneous results in the determination of the luminous efficacy. To overcome this problem of charging, a comparison method has been developed, which enables accurate measurement of the current density of the electron beam. The study of CL from phosphor specimens in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) is the second subject to be treated. A detailed description of a measuring method to determine the overall decay time of single phosphor crystals in a SEM without beam blanking is presented. The third technique is based on the unique combination of microscopy and spectrometry in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) of Brunel University London (UK). This combination enables the recording of CL-spectra of nanometre-sized specimens and determining spatial variations in CL emission across individual particles by superimposing the scanning TEM and CL-images. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Two 8-Hydroxyquinolinate Based Supramolecular Coordination Compounds: Synthesis, Structures and Spectral Properties
Materials 2017, 10(3), 313; doi:10.3390/ma10030313
Received: 9 February 2017 / Revised: 3 March 2017 / Accepted: 16 March 2017 / Published: 18 March 2017
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Abstract
Two new Cr(III) complexes based on 2-substituted 8-hydroxyquinoline ligands, namely [Cr(L1)3] (1), (HL1=(E)-2-[2-(4-nitro-phenyl)-vinyl]-8-hydroxy-quinoline) and [Cr(L2)3] (2), (HL2=(E)-2-[2-(4-chloro-phenyl)vinyl]-8-hydroxy-quinoline), were prepared by a facile hydrothermal method and characterized thoroughly
[...] Read more.
Two new Cr(III) complexes based on 2-substituted 8-hydroxyquinoline ligands, namely [Cr(L1)3] (1), (HL1=(E)-2-[2-(4-nitro-phenyl)-vinyl]-8-hydroxy-quinoline) and [Cr(L2)3] (2), (HL2=(E)-2-[2-(4-chloro-phenyl)vinyl]-8-hydroxy-quinoline), were prepared by a facile hydrothermal method and characterized thoroughly by single crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, FTIR, TGA, ESI-MS, UV-Visible absorption spectra and fluorescence emission spectra. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses showed that the two compounds featured 3D supramolecular architectures constructed from noncovalent interactions, such as π···π stacking, C-H···π, C-H···O, C-Cl···π, C-H···Cl interactions. The thermogravimetric analysis and ESI-MS study of compounds 1 and 2 suggested that the Cr(III) complexes possessed good stability both in solid and solution. In addition, the ultraviolet and fluorescence response of the HL1 and HL2 shown marked changes upon their complexation with Cr(III) ion, which indicated that the two 8-hydroxyquinolinate based ligand are promising heavy metal chelating agent for Cr3+. Full article
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Open AccessArticle VO2 Thermochromic Films on Quartz Glass Substrate Grown by RF-Plasma-Assisted Oxide Molecular Beam Epitaxy
Materials 2017, 10(3), 314; doi:10.3390/ma10030314
Received: 21 January 2017 / Revised: 14 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 19 March 2017
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Abstract
Vanadium dioxide (VO2) thermochromic thin films with various thicknesses were grown on quartz glass substrates by radio frequency (RF)-plasma assisted oxide molecular beam epitaxy (O-MBE). The crystal structure, morphology and chemical stoichiometry were investigated systemically by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force
[...] Read more.
Vanadium dioxide (VO2) thermochromic thin films with various thicknesses were grown on quartz glass substrates by radio frequency (RF)-plasma assisted oxide molecular beam epitaxy (O-MBE). The crystal structure, morphology and chemical stoichiometry were investigated systemically by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. An excellent reversible metal-to-insulator transition (MIT) characteristics accompanied by an abrupt change in both electrical resistivity and optical infrared (IR) transmittance was observed from the optimized sample. Remarkably, the transition temperature (TMIT) deduced from the resistivity-temperature curve was reasonably consistent with that obtained from the temperature-dependent IR transmittance. Based on Raman measurement and XPS analyses, the observations were interpreted in terms of residual stresses and chemical stoichiometry. This achievement will be of great benefit for practical application of VO2-based smart windows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal-Insulator Transition)
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Open AccessArticle Microwave-Assisted Catalytic Synthesis of Bio-Based Copolymers from Waste Cooking Oil
Materials 2017, 10(3), 315; doi:10.3390/ma10030315
Received: 9 January 2017 / Revised: 10 March 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 20 March 2017
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Abstract
Solvent-free copolymerization of epoxides derived from fatty esters of waste cooking oil with phthalic anhydride using (salen)CrIIICl as catalyst and n-Bu4NCl/DMAP (tetrabutylammonium chloride/4-(dimethylamino)pyridine) as co-catalysts was carried out for the first time under microwave irradiation, where reaction time was
[...] Read more.
Solvent-free copolymerization of epoxides derived from fatty esters of waste cooking oil with phthalic anhydride using (salen)CrIIICl as catalyst and n-Bu4NCl/DMAP (tetrabutylammonium chloride/4-(dimethylamino)pyridine) as co-catalysts was carried out for the first time under microwave irradiation, where reaction time was reduced from a number of hours to minutes. The polyesters were obtained with molecular weight (Mw = 3100–6750 g/mol) and dispersity values (D = 1.18–1.92) when (salen)CrIIICl/n-Bu4NCl was used as catalysts. Moreover, in the case of DMAP as a co-catalyst, polyesters with improved molecular weight (Mw = 5500–6950 g/mol) and narrow dispersity values (D = 1.07–1.28) were obtained even at reduced concentrations of (salen)CrIIICl and DMAP. The obtained products were characterized and evaluated by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) Techniques. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Study on the Fire Properties of Nitrocellulose with Different Structures
Materials 2017, 10(3), 316; doi:10.3390/ma10030316
Received: 5 January 2017 / Revised: 6 March 2017 / Accepted: 16 March 2017 / Published: 20 March 2017
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Abstract
In order to ensure the safety of inflammable and explosive chemical substance such as nitrocellulose (NC) mixtures in the process of handing, storage, and usage, it is necessary to obtain the fire properties of NC with different exterior structures. In present study, fire
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In order to ensure the safety of inflammable and explosive chemical substance such as nitrocellulose (NC) mixtures in the process of handing, storage, and usage, it is necessary to obtain the fire properties of NC with different exterior structures. In present study, fire properties of two commonly used nitrocelluloses with soft fiber structure and white chip structure were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the ISO 5660 cone calorimeter. Experimental findings revealed that the most important fire properties such as ignition time, mass loss rate and ash content exhibited significant differences between the two structures of NC. Compared with the soft fiber NC, chip NC possesses a lower fire hazard, and its heat release rate intensity (HRRI) is mainly affected by the sample mass. In addition, oxygen consumption (OC) calorimetry method was compared with thermal chemistry (TC) method based on stoichiometry for HRRI calculation. HRRI results of NC with two structures obtained by these two methods showed a good consistency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Towards Highly Performing and Stable PtNi Catalysts in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells for Automotive Application
Materials 2017, 10(3), 317; doi:10.3390/ma10030317
Received: 28 December 2016 / Revised: 13 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 21 March 2017
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Abstract
In order to help the introduction on the automotive market of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), it is mandatory to develop highly performing and stable catalysts. The main objective of this work is to investigate PtNi/C catalysts in a PEFC under low relative
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In order to help the introduction on the automotive market of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), it is mandatory to develop highly performing and stable catalysts. The main objective of this work is to investigate PtNi/C catalysts in a PEFC under low relative humidity and pressure conditions, more representative of automotive applications. Carbon supported PtNi nanoparticles were prepared by reduction of metal precursors with formic acid and successive thermal and leaching treatments. The effect of the chemical composition, structure and surface characteristics of the synthesized samples on their electrochemical behavior was investigated. The catalyst characterized by a larger Pt content (Pt3Ni2/C) presented the highest catalytic activity (lower potential losses in the activation region) among the synthesized bimetallic PtNi catalysts and the commercial Pt/C, used as the reference material, after testing at high temperature (95 °C) and low humidification (50%) conditions for automotive applications, showing a cell potential (ohmic drop-free) of 0.82 V at 500 mA·cm−2. In order to assess the electro-catalysts stability, accelerated degradation tests were carried out by cycling the cell potential between 0.6 V and 1.2 V. By comparing the electrochemical and physico-chemical parameters at the beginning of life (BoL) and end of life (EoL), it was demonstrated that the Pt1Ni1/C catalyst was the most stable among the catalyst series, with only a 2% loss of voltage at 200 mA·cm−2 and 12.5% at 950 mA·cm−2. However, further improvements are needed to produce durable catalysts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Materials in Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Material Composition and Environmental Condition on Thermal Characteristics of Conductive Asphalt Concrete
Materials 2017, 10(3), 218; doi:10.3390/ma10030218
Received: 3 January 2017 / Revised: 18 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
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Abstract
Conductive asphalt concrete with high thermal conductivity has been proposed to improve the solar energy collection and snow melting efficiencies of asphalt solar collector (ASC). This paper aims to provide some insight into choosing the basic materials for preparation of conductive asphalt concrete,
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Conductive asphalt concrete with high thermal conductivity has been proposed to improve the solar energy collection and snow melting efficiencies of asphalt solar collector (ASC). This paper aims to provide some insight into choosing the basic materials for preparation of conductive asphalt concrete, as well as determining the evolution of thermal characteristics affected by environmental factors. The thermal properties of conductive asphalt concrete were studied by the Thermal Constants Analyzer. Experimental results showed that aggregate and conductive filler have a significant effect on the thermal properties of asphalt concrete, while the effect of asphalt binder was not evident due to its low proportion. Utilization of mineral aggregate and conductive filler with higher thermal conductivity is an efficient method to prepare conductive asphalt concrete. Moreover, change in thermal properties of asphalt concrete under different temperature and moisture conditions should be taken into account to determine the actual thermal properties of asphalt concrete. There was no noticeable difference in thermal properties of asphalt concrete before and after aging. Furthermore, freezing–thawing cycles strongly affect the thermal properties of conductive asphalt concrete, due to volume expansion and bonding degradation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Hot Deformation and Processing Window Optimization of a 70MnSiCrMo Carbide-Free Bainitic Steel
Materials 2017, 10(3), 318; doi:10.3390/ma10030318
Received: 24 January 2017 / Revised: 8 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 21 March 2017
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Abstract
The hot deformation behavior of a high carbon carbide-free bainitic steel was studied through isothermal compression tests that were performed on a Gleeble-1500D thermal mechanical simulator at temperatures of 1223–1423 K and strain rates of 0.01–5 s−1. The flow behavior, constitutive
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The hot deformation behavior of a high carbon carbide-free bainitic steel was studied through isothermal compression tests that were performed on a Gleeble-1500D thermal mechanical simulator at temperatures of 1223–1423 K and strain rates of 0.01–5 s−1. The flow behavior, constitutive equations, dynamic recrystallization (DRX) characteristics, and processing map were respectively analyzed in detail. It is found that the flow stress increases with increasing the strain rate and decreases with increasing the temperature, and the single-peak DRX can be easily observed at high temperatures and/or low strain rates. The internal relationship between the flow stress and processing parameters was built by the constitutive equations embracing a parameter of Z/A, where the activation energy for hot deformation is 351.539 kJ/mol and the stress exponent is 4.233. In addition, the DRX evolution and the critical conditions for starting DRX were discussed. Then the model of the DRX volume fraction was developed with satisfied predictability. Finally, the processing maps at different strains were constructed according to the dynamic material model. The safety domains and flow instability regions were identified. The best processing parameters of this steel are within the temperature range of 1323–1423 K and strain rate range of 0.06–1 s−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel Preparation Method of Two Polymer Dyes with Low Cytotoxicity
Materials 2017, 10(3), 219; doi:10.3390/ma10030219
Received: 5 January 2017 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
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Abstract
A new preparation method of polymer dyes was developed to improve both the grafting degree of the azo dyes onto O-carboxymethyl chitosan (OMCS) and the water solubility of prepared polymer dyes. Firstly, the coupling compound of two azo edible colorants, sunset yellow (SY)
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A new preparation method of polymer dyes was developed to improve both the grafting degree of the azo dyes onto O-carboxymethyl chitosan (OMCS) and the water solubility of prepared polymer dyes. Firstly, the coupling compound of two azo edible colorants, sunset yellow (SY) and allura red (AR), was grafted onto OMCS, and then coupled with their diazonium salt. The chemical structure of prepared polymer dyes was determined by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and 1H-NMR, and the results showed that the two azo dyes were successfully grafted onto OMCS. The grafting degree onto OMCS and the water solubility of polymer dyes were tested, and the results showed that they were both improved as expected. The UV-vis spectra analysis results showed that the prepared polymer dyes showed similar color performance with the original azo dyes. Eventually, the cytotoxicity of prepared polymer dyes was tested and compared with the original azo dyes by a cytotoxicity test on human liver cell lines LO2, and the results showed that their grafting onto OMCS significantly reduced the cytotoxicity. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication High Performance Complementary Circuits Based on p-SnO and n-IGZO Thin-Film Transistors
Materials 2017, 10(3), 319; doi:10.3390/ma10030319
Received: 5 January 2017 / Revised: 28 February 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 21 March 2017
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Abstract
Oxide semiconductors are regarded as promising materials for large-area and/or flexible electronics. In this work, a ring oscillator based on n-type indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) and p-type tin monoxide (SnO) is presented. The IGZO thin-film transistor (TFT) shows a linear mobility of
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Oxide semiconductors are regarded as promising materials for large-area and/or flexible electronics. In this work, a ring oscillator based on n-type indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) and p-type tin monoxide (SnO) is presented. The IGZO thin-film transistor (TFT) shows a linear mobility of 11.9 cm2/(V∙s) and a threshold voltage of 12.2 V. The SnO TFT exhibits a mobility of 0.51 cm2/(V∙s) and a threshold voltage of 20.1 V which is suitable for use with IGZO TFTs to form complementary circuits. At a supply voltage of 40 V, the complementary inverter shows a full output voltage swing and a gain of 24 with both TFTs having the same channel length/channel width ratio. The three-stage ring oscillator based on IGZO and SnO is able to operate at 2.63 kHz and the peak-to-peak oscillation amplitude reaches 36.1 V at a supply voltage of 40 V. The oxide-based complementary circuits, after further optimization of the operation voltage, may have wide applications in practical large-area flexible electronics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxide Semiconductor Thin-Film Transistor)
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Open AccessArticle Screen-Printed Fabrication of PEDOT:PSS/Silver Nanowire Composite Films for Transparent Heaters
Materials 2017, 10(3), 220; doi:10.3390/ma10030220
Received: 24 October 2016 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
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Abstract
A transparent and flexible film heater was fabricated; based on a hybrid structure of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and silver nanowires (Ag NWs) using a screen printing; which is a scalable production technology. The resulting film integrates the advantages of the two conductive materials;
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A transparent and flexible film heater was fabricated; based on a hybrid structure of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and silver nanowires (Ag NWs) using a screen printing; which is a scalable production technology. The resulting film integrates the advantages of the two conductive materials; easy film-forming and strong adhesion to the substrate of the polymer PEDOT:PSS; and high conductivity of the Ag NWs. The fabricated composite films with different NW densities exhibited the transmittance within the range from 82.3% to 74.1% at 550 nm. By applying 40 V potential on the films; a stable temperature from 49 °C to 99 °C was generated within 30 s to 50 s. However; the surface temperature of the pristine PEDOT:PSS film did not increase compared to the room temperature. The composite film with the transmittance of 74.1% could be heated to the temperatures from 41 °C to 99 °C at the driven voltages from 15 V to 40 V; indicating that the film heater exhibited uniform heating and rapid thermal response. Therefore; the PEDOT:PSS/Ag NW composite film is a promising candidate for the application of the transparent and large-scale film heaters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials for Printable Transparent Electrodes)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Thickness of Resorbable Bacterial Cellulose Membrane on Guided Bone Regeneration
Materials 2017, 10(3), 320; doi:10.3390/ma10030320
Received: 13 February 2017 / Revised: 14 March 2017 / Accepted: 17 March 2017 / Published: 21 March 2017
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Abstract
This study introduces the effect of the thickness of a bacterial cellulose membrane by comparing the bone regeneration effect on rat skulls when using a collagen membrane and different thicknesses of resorbable bacterial cellulose membranes for guided bone regeneration. Barrier membranes of 0.10
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This study introduces the effect of the thickness of a bacterial cellulose membrane by comparing the bone regeneration effect on rat skulls when using a collagen membrane and different thicknesses of resorbable bacterial cellulose membranes for guided bone regeneration. Barrier membranes of 0.10 mm, 0.15 mm, and 0.20 mm in thickness were made using bacterial cellulose produced as microbial fermentation metabolites. Mechanical strength was investigated, and new bone formation was evaluated through animal experimental studies. Experimental animals were sacrificed after having 2 weeks and 8 weeks of recovery, and specimens were processed for histologic and histomorphometric analyses measuring the area of bone regeneration (%) using an image analysis program. In 2 weeks, bone-like materials and fibrous connective tissues were observed in histologic analysis. In 8 weeks, all experimental groups showed the arrangement of osteoblasts surrounding the supporting body on the margin and center of the bone defect region. However, the amount of new bone formation was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in bacterial cellulose membrane with 0.10 mm in thickness compared to the other experimental groups. Within the limitations of this study, a bacterial cellulose membrane with 0.10 mm thickness induced the most effective bone regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle 3D Molding of Veneers by Mechanical and Pneumatic Methods
Materials 2017, 10(3), 321; doi:10.3390/ma10030321
Received: 19 November 2016 / Revised: 9 March 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
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Abstract
This paper deals with the influence of selected methods (mechanical and pneumatic) as well as various factors (wood species, moisture content, veneer shape, punch diameter, laminating foil thickness, holding method, plasticizing) on 3D molding of veneers. 3D molding was evaluated on the basis
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This paper deals with the influence of selected methods (mechanical and pneumatic) as well as various factors (wood species, moisture content, veneer shape, punch diameter, laminating foil thickness, holding method, plasticizing) on 3D molding of veneers. 3D molding was evaluated on the basis of maximum deflection of birch and beech veneers. Cracks and warping edges were also evaluated in selected groups of mechanical molding. Mechanical methods tested veneers with various treatments (steaming, water and ammonia plasticizing and lamination). The pneumatic method was based on veneer shaping using air pressure. The results indicate that birch veneers are more suitable for 3D molding. The differences between the mechanical and pneumatic methods were not considerable. The most suitable method for mechanical 3D molding was the veneer lamination by polyethylene foils with thicknesses of 80 and 125 μm, inasmuch as these achieved better results than veneer plasticized by steam. The occurrence of cracks was more frequent in beech veneers, whereas, edge warping occurred at similar rates for both wood species and depends rather on holding method during 3D molding. Use of the ammonia solution is more suitable and there occurs no marked increase in moisture as happens when soaking in water. Full article
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Open AccessArticle SCC of 2304 Duplex Stainless Steel—Microstructure, Residual Stress and Surface Grinding Effects
Materials 2017, 10(3), 221; doi:10.3390/ma10030221
Received: 4 January 2017 / Revised: 20 February 2017 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
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Abstract
The influence of surface grinding and microstructure on chloride induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of 2304 duplex stainless steel has been investigated. Grinding operations were performed both parallel and perpendicular to the rolling direction of the material. SCC tests were conducted in
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The influence of surface grinding and microstructure on chloride induced stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of 2304 duplex stainless steel has been investigated. Grinding operations were performed both parallel and perpendicular to the rolling direction of the material. SCC tests were conducted in boiling magnesium chloride according to ASTM G36; specimens were exposed both without external loading and with varied levels of four-point bend loading. Residual stresses were measured on selected specimens before and after exposure using the X-ray diffraction technique. In addition, in-situ surface stress measurements subjected to four-point bend loading were performed to evaluate the deviation between the actual applied loading and the calculated values according to ASTM G39. Micro-cracks, initiated by grinding induced surface tensile residual stresses, were observed for all the ground specimens but not on the as-delivered surfaces. Loading transverse to the rolling direction of the material increased the susceptibility to chloride induced SCC. Grinding induced tensile residual stresses and micro-notches in the as-ground surface topography were also detrimental. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress Corrosion Cracking in Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Enhanced Unipolar Resistive Switching Characteristics of Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 Thin Films with High ON/OFF Ratio
Materials 2017, 10(3), 322; doi:10.3390/ma10030322
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 3 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
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Abstract
A metal–insulator–metal structure resistive switching device based on H0.5Z0.5O2 (HZO) thin film deposited by pulse laser deposition (PLD) has been investigated for resistive random access memory (RRAM) applications. The devices demonstrated bistable and reproducible unipolar resistive switching (RS)
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A metal–insulator–metal structure resistive switching device based on H0.5Z0.5O2 (HZO) thin film deposited by pulse laser deposition (PLD) has been investigated for resistive random access memory (RRAM) applications. The devices demonstrated bistable and reproducible unipolar resistive switching (RS) behaviors with an extremely high OFF/ON ratio over 5400. The retention property had no degradation at 6 × 104 s. The current–voltage characteristics of the HZO samples showed a Schottky emission conduction in the high voltage region (Vreset < V < Vset), while at the low voltage region (V < Vreset), the ohmic contact and space charge limited conduction (SCLC) are suggested to be responsible for the low and high resistance states, respectively. Combined with the conductance mechanism, the RS behaviors are attributed to joule heating and redox reactions in the HZO thin film induced by the external electron injection. Full article
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Open AccessArticle All-Aluminum Thin Film Transistor Fabrication at Room Temperature
Materials 2017, 10(3), 222; doi:10.3390/ma10030222
Received: 7 December 2016 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
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Abstract
Bottom-gate all-aluminum thin film transistors with multi conductor/insulator nanometer heterojunction were investigated in this article. Alumina (Al2O3) insulating layer was deposited on the surface of aluminum doping zinc oxide (AZO) conductive layer, as one AZO/Al2O3 heterojunction
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Bottom-gate all-aluminum thin film transistors with multi conductor/insulator nanometer heterojunction were investigated in this article. Alumina (Al2O3) insulating layer was deposited on the surface of aluminum doping zinc oxide (AZO) conductive layer, as one AZO/Al2O3 heterojunction unit. The measurements of transmittance electronic microscopy (TEM) and X-ray reflectivity (XRR) revealed the smooth interfaces between ~2.2-nm-thick Al2O3 layers and ~2.7-nm-thick AZO layers. The devices were entirely composited by aluminiferous materials, that is, their gate and source/drain electrodes were respectively fabricated by aluminum neodymium alloy (Al:Nd) and pure Al, with Al2O3/AZO multilayered channel and AlOx:Nd gate dielectric layer. As a result, the all-aluminum TFT with two Al2O3/AZO heterojunction units exhibited a mobility of 2.47 cm2/V·s and an Ion/Ioff ratio of 106. All processes were carried out at room temperature, which created new possibilities for green displays industry by allowing for the devices fabricated on plastic-like substrates or papers, mainly using no toxic/rare materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxide Semiconductor Thin-Film Transistor)
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Open AccessArticle Integration of Electrodeposited Ni-Fe in MEMS with Low-Temperature Deposition and Etch Processes
Materials 2017, 10(3), 323; doi:10.3390/ma10030323
Received: 9 February 2017 / Revised: 12 March 2017 / Accepted: 17 March 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
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Abstract
This article presents a set of low-temperature deposition and etching processes for the integration of electrochemically deposited Ni-Fe alloys in complex magnetic microelectromechanical systems, as Ni-Fe is known to suffer from detrimental stress development when subjected to excessive thermal loads. A selective etch
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This article presents a set of low-temperature deposition and etching processes for the integration of electrochemically deposited Ni-Fe alloys in complex magnetic microelectromechanical systems, as Ni-Fe is known to suffer from detrimental stress development when subjected to excessive thermal loads. A selective etch process is reported which enables the copper seed layer used for electrodeposition to be removed while preserving the integrity of Ni-Fe. In addition, a low temperature deposition and surface micromachining process is presented in which silicon dioxide and silicon nitride are used, respectively, as sacrificial material and structural dielectric. The sacrificial layer can be patterned and removed by wet buffered oxide etch or vapour HF etching. The reported methods limit the thermal budget and minimise the stress development in Ni-Fe. This combination of techniques represents an advance towards the reliable integration of Ni-Fe components in complex surface micromachined magnetic MEMS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Development of AlN and TiB2 Composites with Nb2O5, Y2O3 and ZrO2 as Sintering Aids
Materials 2017, 10(3), 324; doi:10.3390/ma10030324
Received: 19 December 2016 / Revised: 8 March 2017 / Accepted: 13 March 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
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Abstract
The synthesis of AlN and TiB2 by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and the effect of Nb2O5, Y2O3 and ZrO2 additions on the mechanical properties and densification of the produced composites is reported and discussed.
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The synthesis of AlN and TiB2 by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and the effect of Nb2O5, Y2O3 and ZrO2 additions on the mechanical properties and densification of the produced composites is reported and discussed. After the SPS process, dense AlN and TiB2 composites with Nb2O5, Y2O3 and ZrO2 were successfully prepared. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that in the AlN composites, the addition of Nb2O5 gives rise to Nb4N3 during sintering. The compound Y3Al5O12 (YAG) was observed as precipitate in the sample with Y2O3. X-ray diffraction analysis of the TiB2 composites showed TiB2 as a single phase in these materials. The maximum Vickers and toughness values were 14.19 ± 1.43 GPa and 27.52 ± 1.75 GPa for the AlN and TiB2 composites, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Water Impact of Syntactic Foams
Materials 2017, 10(3), 224; doi:10.3390/ma10030224
Received: 22 January 2017 / Revised: 7 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
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Abstract
Syntactic foams are particulate composite materials that are extensively integrated in naval and aerospace structures as core materials for sandwich panels. While several studies have demonstrated the potential of syntactic foams as energy absorbing materials in impact tests, our understanding of their response
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Syntactic foams are particulate composite materials that are extensively integrated in naval and aerospace structures as core materials for sandwich panels. While several studies have demonstrated the potential of syntactic foams as energy absorbing materials in impact tests, our understanding of their response to water impact remains elusive. In this work, we attempt a first characterization of the behavior of a vinyl ester/glass syntactic subject to slamming. High-speed imaging is leveraged to elucidate the physics of water impact of syntactic foam wedges in a free-fall drop tower. From the images, we simultaneously measure the deformation of the wedge and the hydrodynamic loading, thereby clarifying the central role of fluid–structure interaction during water impact. We study two different impact heights and microballoon density to assess the role of impact energy and syntactic foam composition on the slamming response. Our results demonstrate that both these factors have a critical role on the slamming response of syntactic foams. Reducing the density of microballoons might help to reduce the severity of the hydrodynamic loading experienced by the wedge, but this comes at the expense of a larger deformation. Such a larger deformation could ultimately lead to failure for large drop heights. These experimental results offer compelling evidence for the role of hydroelastic coupling in the slamming response of syntactic foams. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Acceleration of Intended Pozzolanic Reaction under Initial Thermal Treatment for Developing Cementless Fly Ash Based Mortar
Materials 2017, 10(3), 225; doi:10.3390/ma10030225
Received: 13 January 2017 / Revised: 17 February 2017 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 24 February 2017
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Abstract
Without using strong alkaline solution or ordinary Portland cement, a new structural binder consisting of fly ash and hydrated lime was hardened through an intensified pozzolanic reaction. The main experimental variables are the addition of silica fume and initial thermal treatment (60 °C
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Without using strong alkaline solution or ordinary Portland cement, a new structural binder consisting of fly ash and hydrated lime was hardened through an intensified pozzolanic reaction. The main experimental variables are the addition of silica fume and initial thermal treatment (60 °C for 3 days). A series of experiments consisting of mechanical testing (compressive and flexural strength, modulus of elasticity), X-ray diffraction, and measurements of the heat of hydration, pore structure, and shrinkage were conducted. These tests show that this new fly ash-based mortar has a compressive strength of 15 MPa at 91 days without any silica fume addition or initial thermal treatment. The strength increased to over 50 MPa based on the acceleration of the intensified pozzolanic reaction from the silica fume addition and initial thermal treatment. This is explained by a significant synergistic effect induced by the silica fume. It intensifies the pozzolanic reaction under thermal treatment and provides a space filling effect. This improved material performance can open a new pathway to utilize the industrial by-product of fly ash in cementless construction materials. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Study of the Corrosion Resistance of Austenitic Stainless Steels during Conversion of Waste to Biofuel
Materials 2017, 10(3), 325; doi:10.3390/ma10030325
Received: 1 February 2017 / Revised: 14 March 2017 / Accepted: 15 March 2017 / Published: 22 March 2017
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Abstract
The paper deals with the corrosion behavior of stainless steels as candidate materials for biofuel production plants by liquefaction process of the sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Corrosion tests were carried out on AISI 316L and AISI 304L stainless steels at
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The paper deals with the corrosion behavior of stainless steels as candidate materials for biofuel production plants by liquefaction process of the sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Corrosion tests were carried out on AISI 316L and AISI 304L stainless steels at 250 °C in a batch reactor during conversion of raw material to bio-oil (biofuel precursor), by exposing specimens either to water/oil phase or humid gas phase. General corrosion rate was measured by weight loss tests. The susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking was evaluated by means of U-bend specimens and slow stress rate tests at 10−6 or 10−5 s−1 strain rate. After tests, scanning electron microscope analysis was carried out to detect cracks and localized attacks. The results are discussed in relation with exposure conditions. They show very low corrosion rates strictly dependent upon time and temperature. No stress corrosion cracking was observed on U-bend specimens, under constant loading. Small cracks confined in the necking cone of specimens prove that stress corrosion cracking only occurred during slow strain rate tests at stresses exceeding the yield strength. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development of the α-IGZO/Ag/α-IGZO Triple-Layer Structure Films for the Application of Transparent Electrode
Materials 2017, 10(3), 226; doi:10.3390/ma10030226
Received: 6 January 2017 / Revised: 10 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 24 February 2017
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Abstract
We investigated the structural, optical, and electrical properties of amorphous IGZO/silver/amorphous IGZO (α-IGZO/Ag/α-IGZO) triple-layer structures that were deposited at room temperature on Eagle XG glass and flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates through the sputtering method. Thin Ag layers with different thicknesses were inserted between
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We investigated the structural, optical, and electrical properties of amorphous IGZO/silver/amorphous IGZO (α-IGZO/Ag/α-IGZO) triple-layer structures that were deposited at room temperature on Eagle XG glass and flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates through the sputtering method. Thin Ag layers with different thicknesses were inserted between two IGZO layers to form a triple-layer structure. Ag was used because of its lower absorption and resistivity. Field emission scanning electron microscopy measurements of the triple-layer structures revealed that the thicknesses of the Ag layers ranged from 13 to 41 nm. The thickness of the Ag layer had a large effect on the electrical and optical properties of the electrodes. The optimum thickness of the Ag metal thin film could be evaluated according to the optical transmittance, electrical conductivity, and figure of merit of the electrode. This study demonstrates that the α-IGZO/Ag/α-IGZO triple-layer transparent electrode can be fabricated with low sheet resistance (4.2 Ω/□) and high optical transmittance (88.1%) at room temperature without postannealing processing on the deposited thin films. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Material Related Papers from ICI2016)
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Open AccessArticle Tunable Luminescence in Sr2MgSi2O7:Tb3+, Eu3+Phosphors Based on Energy Transfer
Materials 2017, 10(3), 227; doi:10.3390/ma10030227
Received: 22 December 2016 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 24 February 2017
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Abstract
A series of Tb3+, Eu3+-doped Sr2MgSi2O7 (SMSO) phosphors were synthesized by high temperature solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, Rietveld refinement, photoluminescence spectra (PL), and luminescence decay curves were utilized to characterize each sample’s properties. Intense green emission due to Tb3+ 5D4→7F5 transition
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A series of Tb3+, Eu3+-doped Sr2MgSi2O7 (SMSO) phosphors were synthesized by high temperature solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, Rietveld refinement, photoluminescence spectra (PL), and luminescence decay curves were utilized to characterize each sample’s properties. Intense green emission due to Tb3+ 5D4→7F5 transition was observed in the Tb3+ single-doped SMSO sample, and the corresponding concentration quenching mechanism was demonstrated to be a diople-diople interaction. A wide overlap between Tb3+ emission and Eu3+ excitationspectraresults in energy transfer from Tb3+ to Eu3+. This has been demonstrated by the emission spectra and decay curves of Tb3+ in SMSO:Tb3+, Eu3+ phosphors. Energy transfer mechanism was determined to be a quadrupole-quadrupole interaction. And critical distance of energy transfer from Tb3+ to Eu3+ ions is calculated to be 6.7 Å on the basis of concentration quenching method. Moreover, white light emission was generated via adjusting concentration ratio of Tb3+ and Eu3+ in SMSO:Tb3+, Eu3+ phosphors. All the results indicate that SMSO:Tb3+, Eu3+ is a promising single-component white light emitting phosphor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Luminescent Materials 2017)
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Open AccessArticle In Vitro Evaluation of Dentin Tubule Occlusion for Novel Calcium Lactate Phosphate (CLP) Paste
Materials 2017, 10(3), 228; doi:10.3390/ma10030228
Received: 19 January 2017 / Revised: 19 February 2017 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
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Abstract
Introduction: The objective of this in vitro study is to evaluate the effective and long-term occlusion of dentinal tubules using a novel calcium lactate phosphate (CLP) based desensitizing agent. Methods: Dentin disks (n = 9) were pre-etched using 1 M lactic acid for
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Introduction: The objective of this in vitro study is to evaluate the effective and long-term occlusion of dentinal tubules using a novel calcium lactate phosphate (CLP) based desensitizing agent. Methods: Dentin disks (n = 9) were pre-etched using 1 M lactic acid for 30 s and individually treated with Colgate® Pro-Relief™ paste, CLP paste, and double distilled water (ddH2O) by a rubber-cupped handpiece. Dentin disks were analyzed under optical micrographs for pre-treatment, directly after treatment, and 14 days post-treatment. One-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey’s test were used to determine whether there were any statistically significant differences in dentinal tubule diameter. Results: A significant decrease occurred in the mean tubule diameter for dentin disks treated with CLP paste. A decrease was observed from 3.52 ± 0.83 µm to 2.62 ± 0.42 µm right after treatment, further decreasing to 1.71 ± 0.45 µm after immersion in artificial saliva for 14 days (p < 0.05). Conclusions: The results suggest that the CLP based desensitizing paste has remineralization properties and provides instant and lasting effectiveness in dentinal tubule occlusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioceramics 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Textural, Structural and Biological Evaluation of Hydroxyapatite Doped with Zinc at Low Concentrations
Materials 2017, 10(3), 229; doi:10.3390/ma10030229
Received: 23 January 2017 / Revised: 19 February 2017 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 25 February 2017
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Abstract
The present work was focused on the synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite doped with low concentrations of zinc (Zn:HAp) (0.01 < xZn < 0.05). The incorporation of low concentrations of Zn2+ ions in the hydroxyapatite (HAp) structure was achieved by co-precipitation
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The present work was focused on the synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite doped with low concentrations of zinc (Zn:HAp) (0.01 < xZn < 0.05). The incorporation of low concentrations of Zn2+ ions in the hydroxyapatite (HAp) structure was achieved by co-precipitation method. The physico-chemical properties of the samples were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), zeta-potential, and DLS and N2-BET measurements. The results obtained by XRD and FTIR studies demonstrated that doping hydroxyapatite with low concentrations of zinc leads to the formation of a hexagonal structure with lattice parameters characteristic to hydroxyapatite. The XRD studies have also shown that the crystallite size and lattice parameters of the unit cell depend on the substitutions of Ca2+ with Zn2+ in the apatitic structure. Moreover, the FTIR analysis revealed that the water content increases with the increase of zinc concentration. Furthermore, the Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) and XPS analyses showed that the elements Ca, P, O, and Zn were found in all the Zn:HAp samples suggesting that the synthesized materials were zinc doped hydroxyapatite, Ca10−xZnx(PO4)6(OH), with 0.01 ≤ xZn ≤ 0.05. Antimicrobial assays on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacterial strains and HepG2 cell viability assay were carried out. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porous Ceramics)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Study of Thermal Runaway Process of 18650 Lithium-Ion Battery
Materials 2017, 10(3), 230; doi:10.3390/ma10030230
Received: 27 December 2016 / Revised: 22 January 2017 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 25 February 2017
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Abstract
This study addresses the effects of the SOC (State of Charge) and the charging–discharging process on the thermal runaway of 18650 lithium-ion batteries. A series of experiments were conducted on an electric heating and testing apparatus. The experimental results indicate that 6 W
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This study addresses the effects of the SOC (State of Charge) and the charging–discharging process on the thermal runaway of 18650 lithium-ion batteries. A series of experiments were conducted on an electric heating and testing apparatus. The experimental results indicate that 6 W is the critical heating power for 40% SOC. With a 20 W constant heating rate, the thermal runaway initial temperature of the lithium-ion battery decreases with the increasing SOC. The final thermal runaway temperature increases with the SOC when the SOC is lower than 80%. However, a contrary conclusion was obtained when the SOC was higher than 80%. Significant mass loss, accompanied by an intense exothermic reaction, took place under a higher SOC. The critical charging current, beyond which the thermal runaway occurs, was found to be 2.6 A. The thermal runaway initial temperature decreases with the increasing charging current, while the intensity of the exothermic reaction varies inversely. Mass ejection of gas and electrolytes exists during thermal runaway when the charging current is higher than 10.4 A, below which only a large amount of gas is released. The thermal runaway initial temperature of discharging is higher than that of non-discharging. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Lattice Modeling of Early-Age Behavior of Structural Concrete
Materials 2017, 10(3), 231; doi:10.3390/ma10030231
Received: 27 December 2016 / Revised: 12 February 2017 / Accepted: 18 February 2017 / Published: 25 February 2017
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Abstract
The susceptibility of structural concrete to early-age cracking depends on material composition, methods of processing, structural boundary conditions, and a variety of environmental factors. Computational modeling offers a means for identifying primary factors and strategies for reducing cracking potential. Herein, lattice models are
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The susceptibility of structural concrete to early-age cracking depends on material composition, methods of processing, structural boundary conditions, and a variety of environmental factors. Computational modeling offers a means for identifying primary factors and strategies for reducing cracking potential. Herein, lattice models are shown to be adept at simulating the thermal-hygral-mechanical phenomena that influence early-age cracking. In particular, this paper presents a lattice-based approach that utilizes a model of cementitious materials hydration to control the development of concrete properties, including stiffness, strength, and creep resistance. The approach is validated and used to simulate early-age cracking in concrete bridge decks. Structural configuration plays a key role in determining the magnitude and distribution of stresses caused by volume instabilities of the concrete material. Under restrained conditions, both thermal and hygral effects are found to be primary contributors to cracking potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Analysis of Concrete using Discrete Elements)
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Open AccessArticle Large-Scale Surfactant-Free Synthesis of p-Type SnTe Nanoparticles for Thermoelectric Applications
Materials 2017, 10(3), 233; doi:10.3390/ma10030233
Received: 29 January 2017 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 26 February 2017
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Abstract
A facile one-pot aqueous solution method has been developed for the fast and straightforward synthesis of SnTe nanoparticles in more than ten gram quantities per batch. The synthesis involves boiling an alkaline Na2SnO2 solution and a NaHTe solution for short
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A facile one-pot aqueous solution method has been developed for the fast and straightforward synthesis of SnTe nanoparticles in more than ten gram quantities per batch. The synthesis involves boiling an alkaline Na2SnO2 solution and a NaHTe solution for short time scales, in which the NaOH concentration and reaction duration play vital roles in controlling the phase purity and particle size, respectively. Spark plasma sintering of the SnTe nanoparticles produces nanostructured compacts that have a comparable thermoelectric performance to bulk counterparts synthesised by more time- and energy-intensive methods. This approach, combining an energy-efficient, surfactant-free solution synthesis with spark plasma sintering, provides a simple, rapid, and inexpensive route to p-type SnTe nanostructured materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Thermoelectric Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Low-Temperature, Solution-Processed, Transparent Zinc Oxide-Based Thin-Film Transistors for Sensing Various Solvents
Materials 2017, 10(3), 234; doi:10.3390/ma10030234
Received: 28 July 2016 / Revised: 28 July 2016 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 26 February 2017
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Abstract
A low temperature solution-processed thin-film transistor (TFT) using zinc oxide (ZnO) film as an exposed sensing semiconductor channel was fabricated to detect and identify various solution solvents. The TFT devices would offer applications for low-cost, rapid and highly compatible water-soluble detection and could
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A low temperature solution-processed thin-film transistor (TFT) using zinc oxide (ZnO) film as an exposed sensing semiconductor channel was fabricated to detect and identify various solution solvents. The TFT devices would offer applications for low-cost, rapid and highly compatible water-soluble detection and could replace conventional silicon field effect transistors (FETs) as bio-sensors. In this work, we demonstrate the utility of the TFT ZnO channel to sense various liquids, such as polar solvents (ethanol), non-polar solvents (toluene) and deionized (DI) water, which were dropped and adsorbed onto the channel. It is discussed how different dielectric constants of polar/non-polar solvents and DI water were associated with various charge transport properties, demonstrating the main detection mechanisms of the thin-film transistor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Bendable and Soft Material Film)
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Open AccessArticle Electrodeposited Organic Layers Formed from Aryl Diazonium Salts for Inhibition of Copper Corrosion
Materials 2017, 10(3), 235; doi:10.3390/ma10030235
Received: 16 January 2017 / Revised: 20 February 2017 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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Abstract
Copper substrates deposed on a gold screen-printed electrode were covered with different aryl diazonium salts by electrodeposition at 0.25 mA for 30 or 300 s. Seven compounds were investigated: 4-aminophenylacetic acid, 4-aminophenethyl alcohol, 4-fluoroaniline, 4-(heptadecafluorooctyl)aniline, 4-aminoantipyrine, 4-(4-aminophenyl)butyric acid and 3,4,5-trimethoxyaniline. Quantitative monitoring of
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Copper substrates deposed on a gold screen-printed electrode were covered with different aryl diazonium salts by electrodeposition at 0.25 mA for 30 or 300 s. Seven compounds were investigated: 4-aminophenylacetic acid, 4-aminophenethyl alcohol, 4-fluoroaniline, 4-(heptadecafluorooctyl)aniline, 4-aminoantipyrine, 4-(4-aminophenyl)butyric acid and 3,4,5-trimethoxyaniline. Quantitative monitoring of the electrodeposition process was carried out by electrogravimetry using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The electrodeposited mass varies between 26 ng/cm2 for 4-fluoroaniline formed during 30 s to 442 ng/cm2 for 4-phenylbutyric acid formed during 300 s. The corrosion inhibition properties of aryl-modified layers have been studied in buffer citrate with pH = 3 or 3.5% NaCl solutions using electrochemical noise (ECN) and Tafel potentiodynamic polarization measurements. A corrosion inhibiting efficiency up to 90% was found. The highest corrosion inhibition was obtained for 4-(4-aminophenyl)butyric acid and the lowest for 4-fluoroaniline. A relation between the inhibition efficiency and the chemical nature of the substituents in the protective layer was found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Advanced Composites)
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Open AccessArticle Fabrication of p-Type ZnO:N Films by Oxidizing Zn3N2 Films in Oxygen Plasma at Low Temperature
Materials 2017, 10(3), 236; doi:10.3390/ma10030236
Received: 1 December 2016 / Revised: 31 January 2017 / Accepted: 8 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
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Abstract
The oxygen vacancy (VO) is known as the main compensation center in p-type ZnO, which leads to the difficulty of fabricating high-quality p-type ZnO. To reduce the oxygen vacancies, we oxidized Zn3N2 films in oxygen plasma and successfully
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The oxygen vacancy (VO) is known as the main compensation center in p-type ZnO, which leads to the difficulty of fabricating high-quality p-type ZnO. To reduce the oxygen vacancies, we oxidized Zn3N2 films in oxygen plasma and successfully prepared p-type ZnO:N films at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 300 °C. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), non-Rutherford backscattering (non-RBS) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectrum, and Hall Effect. The results show that the nitrogen atoms successfully substitute the oxygen sites in the ZnO:N films. The film prepared at room temperature exhibits the highest hole concentration of 6.22 × 1018 cm−3, and the lowest resistivity of 39.47 Ω∙cm. In all ZnO:N films, the VO defects are reduced significantly. At 200 °C, the film holds the lowest value of VO defects and the strongest UV emission. These results imply that oxygen plasma is very efficient in reducing VO defects in p-type ZnO:N films, and could greatly reduce the reaction temperature. This method is significant for the development of ZnO-based optoelectronic devices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Cooling Rate on Morphology of TiAl3 Particles in Al–4Ti Master Alloy
Materials 2017, 10(3), 238; doi:10.3390/ma10030238
Received: 26 December 2016 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
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Abstract
The Al–4Ti master alloy was fabricated by aluminum (Al) and sponge titanium particle in a resistance furnace at different cooling rates. This work aims to investigate the relationship between the cooling rate and morphology of TiAl3. The microstructure and composition of master alloys
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The Al–4Ti master alloy was fabricated by aluminum (Al) and sponge titanium particle in a resistance furnace at different cooling rates. This work aims to investigate the relationship between the cooling rate and morphology of TiAl3. The microstructure and composition of master alloys at different cooling rates were characterized and analyzed by optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and SEM with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that various morphologies of TiAl3 particles in the Al–4Ti master alloy could be acquired at different cooling rates. Petal-like, blocky, and flake-like TiAl3 particles in the Al–4Ti master alloy were respectively acquired at the cooling rates of 3.36 K/s, 2.57 K/s, and 0.31 K/s. It was also found that the morphology of TiAl3 particles in the prepared master alloy changed from petal-like to blocky, then finally to flake-like, with the decrease of cooling rate. In addition, the morphology of the TiAl3 particles has no effect on the phase inversion temperature of Al–4Ti master alloy. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Antimicrobial Bamboo Materials Functionalized with ZnO and Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites
Materials 2017, 10(3), 239; doi:10.3390/ma10030239
Received: 1 December 2016 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
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Abstract
Bamboo materials with improved antibacterial performance based on ZnO and graphene oxide (GO) were fabricated by vacuum impregnation and hydrothermal strategies. The Zn2+ ions and GO nanosheets were firstly infiltrated into the bamboo structure, followed by dehydration and crystallization upon hydrothermal treatment, leading
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Bamboo materials with improved antibacterial performance based on ZnO and graphene oxide (GO) were fabricated by vacuum impregnation and hydrothermal strategies. The Zn2+ ions and GO nanosheets were firstly infiltrated into the bamboo structure, followed by dehydration and crystallization upon hydrothermal treatment, leading to the formation of ZnO/GO nanocomposites anchored in the bulk bamboo. The bamboo composites were characterized by several techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), which confirmed the existence of GO and ZnO in the composites. Antibacterial performances of bamboo samples were evaluated by the bacteriostatic circle method. The introduction of ZnO/GO nanocomposites into bamboo yielded ZnO/GO/bamboo materials which exhibited significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli, Gram-negative) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis, Gram-positive) bacteria and high thermal stability. The antimicrobial bamboo would be expected to be a promising material for the application in the furniture, decoration, and construction industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle The Stability Analysis Method of the Cohesive Granular Slope on the Basis of Graph Theory
Materials 2017, 10(3), 240; doi:10.3390/ma10030240
Received: 25 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
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Abstract
This paper attempted to provide a method to calculate progressive failure of the cohesivefrictional granular geomaterial and the spatial distribution of the stability of the cohesive granular slope. The methodology can be divided into two parts: the characterization method of macro-contact and the
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This paper attempted to provide a method to calculate progressive failure of the cohesivefrictional granular geomaterial and the spatial distribution of the stability of the cohesive granular slope. The methodology can be divided into two parts: the characterization method of macro-contact and the analysis of the slope stability. Based on the graph theory, the vertexes, the edges and the edge sequences are abstracted out to characterize the voids, the particle contact and the macro-contact, respectively, bridging the gap between the mesoscopic and macro scales of granular materials. This paper adopts this characterization method to extract a graph from a granular slope and characterize the macro sliding surface, then the weighted graph is analyzed to calculate the slope safety factor. Each edge has three weights representing the sliding moment, the anti-sliding moment and the braking index of contact-bond, respectively, . The safety factor of the slope is calculated by presupposing a certain number of sliding routes and reducing Weight repeatedly and counting the mesoscopic failure of the edge. It is a kind of slope analysis method from mesoscopic perspective so it can present more detail of the mesoscopic property of the granular slope. In the respect of macro scale, the spatial distribution of the stability of the granular slope is in agreement with the theoretical solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Granular Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Structure-Dependent Spectroscopic Properties of Yb3+-Doped Phosphosilicate Glasses Modified by SiO2
Materials 2017, 10(3), 241; doi:10.3390/ma10030241
Received: 30 January 2017 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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Abstract
Yb3+-doped phosphate glasses containing different amounts of SiO2 were successfully synthesized by the conventional melt-quenching method. The influence mechanism of SiO2 on the structural and spectroscopic properties was investigated systematically using the micro-Raman technique. It was worth noting that
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Yb3+-doped phosphate glasses containing different amounts of SiO2 were successfully synthesized by the conventional melt-quenching method. The influence mechanism of SiO2 on the structural and spectroscopic properties was investigated systematically using the micro-Raman technique. It was worth noting that the glass with 26.7 mol % SiO2 possessed the longest fluorescence lifetime (1.51 ms), the highest gain coefficient (1.10 ms·pm2), the maximum Stark splitting manifold of 2F7/2 level (781 cm−1), and the largest scalar crystal-field NJ and Yb3+ asymmetry degree. Micro-Raman spectra revealed that introducing SiO2 promoted the formation of P=O linkages, but broke the P=O linkages when the SiO2 content was greater than 26.7 mol %. Based on the previous 29Si MAS NMR experimental results, these findings further demonstrated that the formation of [SiO6] may significantly affect the formation of P=O linkages, and thus influences the spectroscopic properties of the glass. These results indicate that phosphosilicate glasses may have potential applications as a Yb3+-doped gain medium for solid-state lasers and optical fiber amplifiers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Upscaling Cement Paste Microstructure to Obtain the Fracture, Shear, and Elastic Concrete Mechanical LDPM Parameters
Materials 2017, 10(3), 242; doi:10.3390/ma10030242
Received: 24 December 2016 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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Abstract
Modeling the complex behavior of concrete for a specific mixture is a challenging task, as it requires bridging the cement scale and the concrete scale. We describe a multiscale analysis procedure for the modeling of concrete structures, in which material properties at the
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Modeling the complex behavior of concrete for a specific mixture is a challenging task, as it requires bridging the cement scale and the concrete scale. We describe a multiscale analysis procedure for the modeling of concrete structures, in which material properties at the macro scale are evaluated based on lower scales. Concrete may be viewed over a range of scale sizes, from the atomic scale (10−10 m), which is characterized by the behavior of crystalline particles of hydrated Portland cement, to the macroscopic scale (10 m). The proposed multiscale framework is based on several models, including chemical analysis at the cement paste scale, a mechanical lattice model at the cement and mortar scales, geometrical aggregate distribution models at the mortar scale, and the Lattice Discrete Particle Model (LDPM) at the concrete scale. The analysis procedure starts from a known chemical and mechanical set of parameters of the cement paste, which are then used to evaluate the mechanical properties of the LDPM concrete parameters for the fracture, shear, and elastic responses of the concrete. Although a macroscopic validation study of this procedure is presented, future research should include a comparison to additional experiments in each scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Numerical Analysis of Concrete using Discrete Elements)
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Open AccessArticle Wear Behavior of Ceramic CAD/CAM Crowns and Natural Antagonists
Materials 2017, 10(3), 244; doi:10.3390/ma10030244
Received: 23 January 2017 / Revised: 23 February 2017 / Accepted: 25 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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Abstract
Objective: Evaluation of wear behavior of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) crowns from various restorative materials and natural antagonists. Method: Full CAD/CAM crowns fabricated with nanoceramic resin (Lava Ultimate (LU)), a glass ceramic in a resin interpenetrating matrix (Vita Enamic (VE)) and a lithium
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Objective: Evaluation of wear behavior of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) crowns from various restorative materials and natural antagonists. Method: Full CAD/CAM crowns fabricated with nanoceramic resin (Lava Ultimate (LU)), a glass ceramic in a resin interpenetrating matrix (Vita Enamic (VE)) and a lithium silicate reinforced ceramic enriched with zirconia (Vita Suprinity (VS)) were cemented on human molars. The crown and antagonists were subjected to simulated chewing. 3D data sets, before and after the chewing simulation, were generated and matched. Occlusal surface roughness, vertical and volume loss of the crowns and antagonists were analyzed. Results: Crown roughness was significantly different between the LU and VE groups after chewing simulation. Crown vertical loss differed in all groups. The highest crown volume loss was found in the LU group, and the lowest in the VE group. Comparisons between the LU and VE groups and the LU and VS groups were significantly different. The highest antagonist volume loss was reached in the VE group, the lowest was in the LU group. Conclusion: Roughness increased after chewing simulation. LU crowns are the most natural antagonist-friendly; these were the most susceptible to vertical and volume loss. Of the tested materials, the VE crowns are the most stable regarding occlusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Mechanical Properties of ZTO, ITO, and a-Si:H Multilayer Films for Flexible Thin Film Solar Cells
Materials 2017, 10(3), 245; doi:10.3390/ma10030245
Received: 10 January 2017 / Revised: 8 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
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Abstract
The behavior of bi- and trilayer coating systems for flexible a-Si:H based solar cells consisting of a barrier, an electrode, and an absorption layer is studied under mechanical load. First, the film morphology, stress, Young’s modulus, and crack onset strain (COS) were analyzed
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The behavior of bi- and trilayer coating systems for flexible a-Si:H based solar cells consisting of a barrier, an electrode, and an absorption layer is studied under mechanical load. First, the film morphology, stress, Young’s modulus, and crack onset strain (COS) were analyzed for single film coatings of various thickness on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. In order to demonstrate the role of the microstructure of a single film on the mechanical behavior of the whole multilayer coating, two sets of InSnOx (indium tin oxide, ITO) conductive coatings were prepared. Whereas a characteristic grain–subgrain structure was observed in ITO-1 films, grain growth was suppressed in ITO-2 films. ITO-1 bilayer coatings showed two-step failure under tensile load with cracks propagating along the ITO-1/a-Si:H-interface, whereas channeling cracks in comparable bi- and trilayers based on amorphous ITO-2 run through all constituent layers. A two-step failure is preferable from an application point of view, as it may lead to only a degradation of the performance instead of the ultimate failure of the device. Hence, the results demonstrate the importance of a fine-tuning of film microstructure not only for excellent electrical properties, but also for a high mechanical performance of flexible devices (e.g., a-Si:H based solar cells) during fabrication in a roll-to-roll process or under service. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stretchable and Flexible Electronic Materials & Devices)
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Open AccessArticle Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Resin Mortar with Sand Washing Waste as Filler
Materials 2017, 10(3), 246; doi:10.3390/ma10030246
Received: 12 January 2017 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 22 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate the potential use of sand washing waste as filler for epoxy resin mortar. The mechanical properties of four series of mortars containing epoxy binder at 10, 15, 20, and 25 wt. % mixed with sand
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The objective of this study was to investigate the potential use of sand washing waste as filler for epoxy resin mortar. The mechanical properties of four series of mortars containing epoxy binder at 10, 15, 20, and 25 wt. % mixed with sand blended with sand washing waste filler in the range of 0–20 wt. % were examined. The compressive and flexural strength increased with the increase in epoxy and filler content; however, above epoxy 20 wt. %, slight change was seen in strength due to increase in epoxy and filler content. Modulus of elasticity also linearly increased with the increase in filler content, but the use of epoxy content beyond 20 wt. % decreased the modulus of elasticity of the mortar. For epoxy content at 10 wt. %, poor bond strength lower than 0.8 MPa was observed, and adding filler at 20 wt. % adversely affected the bond strength, in contrast to the mortars containing epoxy at 15, 20, 25 wt. %. The results indicate that the sand washing waste can be used as potential filler for epoxy resin mortar to obtain better mechanical properties by adding the optimum level of sand washing waste filler. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Preparation and Characterization of Polyurethanes with Cross-Linked Siloxane in the Side Chain by Sol-Gel Reactions
Materials 2017, 10(3), 247; doi:10.3390/ma10030247
Received: 13 December 2016 / Accepted: 25 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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Abstract
A series of novel polyurethanes containing cross-linked siloxane in the side chain (SPU) were successfully synthesized through a sol-gel process. The SPU was composed of 0%–20% N-(n-butyl)-3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (HDI-T) modified hexamethylene diisocynate homopolymer. The effects of HDI-T content on both the structure and properties
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A series of novel polyurethanes containing cross-linked siloxane in the side chain (SPU) were successfully synthesized through a sol-gel process. The SPU was composed of 0%–20% N-(n-butyl)-3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (HDI-T) modified hexamethylene diisocynate homopolymer. The effects of HDI-T content on both the structure and properties of SPU were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), mechanical properties tests, gel content test, water contact angle measurement and water absorption test. FT-IR, XPS and XRD results confirmed the successful incorporation of HDI-T onto polyurethanes and the formation of Si–O–Si. The surface roughness and the Si content of SPU enhanced with the increase of HDI-T content. Both crystallization and melting temperature shifted to a lower point after the incorporation of HDI-T. The hydrophobicity, tensile strength, Young’s modulus and pencil hardness overall increased with the increasing of HDI-T content, whereas the thermal stability and the elongation at break of SPU slightly decreased. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Necessary Conditions for Nonlinear Ultrasonic Modulation Generation Given a Localized Fatigue Crack in a Plate-Like Structure
Materials 2017, 10(3), 248; doi:10.3390/ma10030248
Received: 25 January 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
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Abstract
It has been shown that nonlinear ultrasonics can be more sensitive to local incipient defects, such as a fatigue crack, than conventional linear ultrasonics. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in utilizing nonlinear ultrasonics for structural health monitoring and nondestructive testing applications. While
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It has been shown that nonlinear ultrasonics can be more sensitive to local incipient defects, such as a fatigue crack, than conventional linear ultrasonics. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in utilizing nonlinear ultrasonics for structural health monitoring and nondestructive testing applications. While the conditions, which are the necessary conditions that should be satisfied for the generation of nonlinear harmonic components, are extensively studied for distributed material nonlinearity, little work has been done to understand the necessary conditions at the presence of a localized nonlinear source such as a fatigue crack. In this paper, the necessary conditions of nonlinear ultrasonic modulation generation in a plate-like structure are formulated specifically for a localized nonlinear source. Then, the correctness of the formulated necessary conditions is experimentally verified using ultrasounds obtained from aluminum plates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Health Monitoring for Aerospace Applications 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Magnetic Anisotropy and Field‐induced Slow  Relaxation of Magnetization in Tetracoordinate CoII Compound [Co(CH3‐im)2Cl2]
Materials 2017, 10(3), 249; doi:10.3390/ma10030249
Received: 13 January 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 28 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2949 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Static and dynamic magnetic properties of the tetracoordinate CoII complex [Co(CH3‐im)2Cl2], (1, CH3‐im = N‐methyl‐imidazole), studied using thorough analyses of magnetometry, and High‐Frequency and ‐Field EPR (HFEPR) measurements, are reported. The study was supported by ab initio complete active space self‐consistent field (CASSCF)
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Static and dynamic magnetic properties of the tetracoordinate CoII complex [Co(CH3‐im)2Cl2], (1, CH3‐im = N‐methyl‐imidazole), studied using thorough analyses of magnetometry, and High‐Frequency and ‐Field EPR (HFEPR) measurements, are reported. The study was supported by ab initio complete active space self‐consistent field (CASSCF) calculations. It has been revealed that 1 possesses a large magnetic anisotropy with a large rhombicity (magnetometry: D = −13.5 cm−1, E/D = 0.33; HFEPR: D = −14.5(1) cm−1, E/D = 0.16(1)). These experimental results agree well with the theoretical calculations (D = −11.2 cm−1, E/D = 0.18). Furthermore, it has been revealed that 1 behaves as a field‐induced single‐ion magnet with a relatively large spin‐reversal barrier (Ueff = 33.5 K). The influence of the Cl–Co–Cl angle on magnetic anisotropy parameters was evaluated using the CASSCF calculations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Magnets and related Phenomena)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Solidification Behavior on Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Ni-Cr-Fe Superalloy Investment Casting
Materials 2017, 10(3), 250; doi:10.3390/ma10030250
Received: 11 January 2017 / Revised: 8 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
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Abstract
The effect of solidification behavior on the microstructures and mechanical properties of Ni-Cr-Fe superalloy investment casting is given. Metallographic and image analysis have been used to quantitatively examine the microstructures’ evolution. For the parts with the thickness of 3 mm and 24 mm,
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The effect of solidification behavior on the microstructures and mechanical properties of Ni-Cr-Fe superalloy investment casting is given. Metallographic and image analysis have been used to quantitatively examine the microstructures’ evolution. For the parts with the thickness of 3 mm and 24 mm, the volume fraction and maximum equivalent radius of the Laves phase increases from 0.3% to 1.2%, from 11.7 μm to 23.4 μm, respectively. Meanwhile, the volume fraction and maximum equivalent radius of carbides increase from 0.3% to 0.5%, from 8.1 μm to 9.9 μm, respectively. In addition, the volume fraction of microporosity increases from 0.3% to 2.7%. As a result, the ultimate tensile strength is reduced from 1125.5 MPa to 820.9 MPa, the elongation from 13.3% to 7.7%, and the quality index from 1294.2 MPa to 954.0 MPa, respectively. A typical brittle fracture is observed on the tensile fracture. As the cooling rate decreases, the microstructures become coarser. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Welding, Joining and Casting of Advanced Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Roles of Cu in the Enhanced Thermoelectric Properties in Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3
Materials 2017, 10(3), 251; doi:10.3390/ma10030251
Received: 19 January 2017 / Revised: 18 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
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Abstract
Recently, Cu-containing p-type Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 materials have shown high thermoelectric performances and promising prospects for practical application in low-grade waste heat recovery. However, the position of Cu in Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 is controversial, and the roles
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Recently, Cu-containing p-type Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 materials have shown high thermoelectric performances and promising prospects for practical application in low-grade waste heat recovery. However, the position of Cu in Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 is controversial, and the roles of Cu in the enhancement of thermoelectric performance are still not clear. In this study, via defects analysis and stability test, the possibility of Cu intercalation in p-type Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 materials has been excluded, and the position of Cu is identified as doping at the Sb sites. Additionally, the effects of Cu dopants on the electrical and thermal transport properties have been systematically investigated. Besides introducing additional holes, Cu dopants can also significantly enhance the carrier mobility by decreasing the Debye screen length and weakening the interaction between carriers and phonons. Meanwhile, the Cu dopants interrupt the periodicity of lattice vibration and bring stronger anharmonicity, leading to extremely low lattice thermal conductivity. Combining the suppression on the intrinsic excitation, a high thermoelectric performance—with a maximum thermoelectric figure of merit of around 1.4 at 430 K—has been achieved in Cu0.005Bi0.5Sb1.495Te3, which is 70% higher than the Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 matrix. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Thermoelectric Materials)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Nitrogen-Polar (000 1 ¯ ) GaN Grown on c-Plane Sapphire with a High-Temperature AlN Buffer
Materials 2017, 10(3), 252; doi:10.3390/ma10030252
Received: 30 December 2016 / Revised: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
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Abstract
We demonstrate growing nitrogen-polar (N-polar) GaN epilayer on c-plane sapphire using a thin AlN buffer layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. We have studied the influence of the AlN buffer layer on the polarity, crystalline quality, and surface morphology of the GaN epilayer
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We demonstrate growing nitrogen-polar (N-polar) GaN epilayer on c-plane sapphire using a thin AlN buffer layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. We have studied the influence of the AlN buffer layer on the polarity, crystalline quality, and surface morphology of the GaN epilayer and found that the growth temperature of the AlN buffer layer played a critical role in the growth of the GaN epilayer. The low growth temperature of the AlN buffer results in gallium-polar GaN. Even a nitridation process has been conducted. High growth temperature for an AlN buffer layer is required to achieve pure N-polarity, high crystalline quality, and smooth surface morphology for a GaN epilayer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials Grown by Metal-Organic Vapour Phase Epitaxy)
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Open AccessArticle Ductility Improvement of an AZ61 Magnesium Alloy through Two-Pass Submerged Friction Stir Processing
Materials 2017, 10(3), 253; doi:10.3390/ma10030253
Received: 26 January 2017 / Revised: 23 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
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Abstract
Friction stir processing (FSP) has been considered as a novel technique to refine the grain size and homogenize the microstructure of metallic materials. In this study, two-pass FSP was conducted under water to enhance the cooling rate during processing, and an AZ61 magnesium
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Friction stir processing (FSP) has been considered as a novel technique to refine the grain size and homogenize the microstructure of metallic materials. In this study, two-pass FSP was conducted under water to enhance the cooling rate during processing, and an AZ61 magnesium alloy with fine-grained and homogeneous microstructure was prepared through this method. Compared to the as-cast material, one-pass FSP resulted in grain refinement and the β-Mg17Al12 phase was broken into small particles. Using a smaller stirring tool and an overlapping ratio of 100%, a finer and more uniform microstructure with an average grain size of 4.6 μm was obtained through two-pass FSP. The two-pass FSP resulted in a significant improvement in elongation of 37.2% ± 4.3%, but a slight decrease in strength compared with one-pass FSP alloy. Besides the microstructure refinement, the texture evolution in the stir zone is also considered responsible for the ductility improvement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Wettability and Contact Time on a Biomimetic Superhydrophobic Surface
Materials 2017, 10(3), 254; doi:10.3390/ma10030254
Received: 15 December 2016 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 2 March 2017
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Abstract
Inspired by the array microstructure of natural superhydrophobic surfaces (lotus leaf and cicada wing), an array microstructure was successfully constructed by high speed wire electrical discharge machining (HS-WEDM) on the surfaces of a 7075 aluminum alloy without any chemical treatment. The artificial surfaces
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Inspired by the array microstructure of natural superhydrophobic surfaces (lotus leaf and cicada wing), an array microstructure was successfully constructed by high speed wire electrical discharge machining (HS-WEDM) on the surfaces of a 7075 aluminum alloy without any chemical treatment. The artificial surfaces had a high apparent contact angle of 153° ± 1° with a contact angle hysteresis less than 5° and showed a good superhydrophobic property. Wettability, contact time, and the corresponding superhydrophobic mechanism of artificial superhydrophobic surface were investigated. The results indicated that the micro-scale array microstructure was an important factor for the superhydrophobic surface, while different array microstructures exhibited different effects on the wettability and contact time of the artificial superhydrophobic surface. The length (L), interval (S), and height (H) of the array microstructure are the main influential factors on the wettability and contact time. The order of importance of these factors is H > S > L for increasing the apparent contact angle and reducing the contact time. The method, using HS-WEDM to fabricate superhydrophobic surface, is simple, low-cost, and environmentally friendly and can easily control the wettability and contact time on the artificial surfaces by changing the array microstructure. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Streptococcus Sanguis Biofilm Architecture and Its Influence on Titanium Corrosion in Enriched Artificial Saliva
Materials 2017, 10(3), 255; doi:10.3390/ma10030255
Received: 18 January 2017 / Revised: 15 February 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
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Abstract
Bacteria biofilm formation on metals is well-known, while biofilm architecture varies under different conditions. To date, few studies have determined the possible contribution to corrosion of titanium made by biofilm architecture. We investigated the interaction between the oral Streptococcus sanguis biofilm architecture and
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Bacteria biofilm formation on metals is well-known, while biofilm architecture varies under different conditions. To date, few studies have determined the possible contribution to corrosion of titanium made by biofilm architecture. We investigated the interaction between the oral Streptococcus sanguis biofilm architecture and its influence on titanium corrosion in enriched artificial saliva using electrochemical methods and microscopic study. Patchy biofilms were observed on titanium surface after being immersed in solution containing S. sanguis. The thickness and size of the patchy biofilms increased with an increase of immersion time. The extensive pits were clearly observed by scanning electron microscopy, showing that adsorption of S. sanguis on titanium promoted the localized corrosion. The electrochemical results indicated that the corrosion rates were clearly accelerated in the presence of S. sanguis. The low icorr and high Rt in the first 48 h indicated that a typical passive behavior still remained. Our study showed that the pitting corrosion of titanium was mainly attributed to the formation of a self-catalytic corrosion cell by the co-effect of patchy biofilm and organic acid secreted by S. sanguis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Influence of Ultrasound Treatment on Cavitation Erosion Resistance of AlSi7 Alloy
Materials 2017, 10(3), 256; doi:10.3390/ma10030256
Received: 6 January 2017 / Revised: 23 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
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Abstract
Ultrasound treatment of liquid aluminum alloys is known to improve mechanical properties of castings. Aluminum foundry alloys are frequently used for production of parts that undergo severe cavitation erosion phenomena during service. In this paper, the effect of the ultrasound treatment on cavitation
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Ultrasound treatment of liquid aluminum alloys is known to improve mechanical properties of castings. Aluminum foundry alloys are frequently used for production of parts that undergo severe cavitation erosion phenomena during service. In this paper, the effect of the ultrasound treatment on cavitation erosion resistance of AlSi7 alloy was assessed and compared to that of conventionally cast samples. Cavitation erosion tests were performed according to ASTM G32 standard on as-cast and heat treated castings. The response of the alloy in each condition was investigated by measuring the mass loss as a function of cavitation time and by analyzing the damaged surfaces by means of optical and scanning electron microscope. It was pointed out that the ultrasound treatment increases the cavitation erosion resistance of the alloy, as a consequence of the higher chemical and microstructural homogeneity, the finer grains and primary particles and the refined structure of the eutectic induced by the treatment itself. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bilayer Poly(Lactic-co-glycolic acid)/Nano-Hydroxyapatite Membrane with Barrier Function and Osteogenesis Promotion for Guided Bone Regeneration
Materials 2017, 10(3), 257; doi:10.3390/ma10030257
Received: 17 January 2017 / Revised: 20 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
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Abstract
Guided bone regeneration (GBR) is one such treatment that reconstructs neo-bone tissue by using a barrier membrane to prevent the invasion of soft tissue and to create a space for guiding new bone growth into the bone defect. Herein, we report a novel
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Guided bone regeneration (GBR) is one such treatment that reconstructs neo-bone tissue by using a barrier membrane to prevent the invasion of soft tissue and to create a space for guiding new bone growth into the bone defect. Herein, we report a novel functionally graded bilayer membrane (FGBM) for GBR application. To fabricate the novel membrane, the composites of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and nano-hydroxyapatite were prepared by phase inversion for the dense layer and by electrospinning for another porous layer, and their corresponding properties were evaluated including surface morphology, mechanics, degradability, cell barrier function, and in vitro osteogenic bioactivity. The results showed that PLGA with 5% nHA in dense layer could meet the requirement of mechanical strength and have excellent barrier function even on condition of post-degradation. Furthermore, PLGA with 30% nHA in porous layer could achieve the good physical and chemical properties. In addition, 30% nHA incorporation would enhance the in vitro mineralization, and have superior capabilities of cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation compared to other groups. Therefore, the designed FGBM could potentially serve as a barrier for preferential tissue ingrowth and achieve a desirable therapeutic result for bone tissue regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Open AccessArticle Nanocomposite Based on Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles and Sulfonated Poly(ether ether ketone) Membranes: Synthesis and Characterization
Materials 2017, 10(3), 258; doi:10.3390/ma10030258
Received: 26 November 2016 / Revised: 10 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
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Abstract
Gold nanoparticles, capped by 3-mercapto propane sulfonate (Au-3MPS), were synthesized inside a swollen sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) membrane (sPEEK). The formation of the Au-3MPS nanoparticles in the swollen sPEEK membrane was observed by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The nanocomposite containing the gold nanoparticles
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Gold nanoparticles, capped by 3-mercapto propane sulfonate (Au-3MPS), were synthesized inside a swollen sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) membrane (sPEEK). The formation of the Au-3MPS nanoparticles in the swollen sPEEK membrane was observed by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The nanocomposite containing the gold nanoparticles grown in the sPEEK membrane, showed the plasmon resonance λmax at about 520 nm, which remained stable over a testing period of three months. The size distribution of the nanoparticles was assessed, and the sPEEK membrane roughness, both before and after the synthesis of nanoparticles, was studied by AFM. The XPS measurements confirm Au-3MPS formation in the sPEEK membrane. Moreover, AFM experiments recorded in fluid allowed the production of images of the Au-3MPS@sPEEK composite in water at different pH levels, achieving a better understanding of the membrane behavior in a water environment; the dynamic hydration process of the Au-3MPS@sPEEK membrane was investigated. These preliminary results suggest that the newly developed nanocomposite membranes could be promising materials for fuel cell applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noble Metal Nanoparticles)
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Open AccessArticle Quantification of Wear and Deformation in Different Configurations of Polyethylene Acetabular Cups Using Micro X-ray Computed Tomography
Materials 2017, 10(3), 259; doi:10.3390/ma10030259
Received: 16 December 2016 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
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Abstract
Wear is currently quantified as mass loss of the bearing materials measured using gravimetric methods. However, this method does not provide other information, such as volumetric loss or surface deviation. In this work, we validated a technique to quantify polyethylene wear in three
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Wear is currently quantified as mass loss of the bearing materials measured using gravimetric methods. However, this method does not provide other information, such as volumetric loss or surface deviation. In this work, we validated a technique to quantify polyethylene wear in three different batches of ultrahigh-molecular-polyethylene acetabular cups used for hip implants using nondestructive microcomputed tomography. Three different configurations of polyethylene acetabular cups, previously tested under the ISO 14242 parameters, were tested on a hip simulator for an additional 2 million cycles using a modified ISO 14242 load waveform. In this context, a new approach was proposed in order to simulate, on a hip joint simulator, high-demand activities. In addition, the effects of these activities were analyzed in terms of wear and deformations of those polyethylenes by means of gravimetric method and micro X-ray computed tomography. In particular, while the gravimetric method was used for weight loss assessment, microcomputed tomography allowed for acquisition of additional quantitative information about the evolution of local wear and deformation through three-dimensional surface deviation maps for the entire cups’ surface. Experimental results showed that the wear and deformation behavior of these materials change according to different mechanical simulations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Study of Polycrystalline Silicon Damage Features Based on Nanosecond Pulse Laser Irradiation with Different Wavelength Effects
Materials 2017, 10(3), 260; doi:10.3390/ma10030260
Received: 11 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
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Abstract
Based on PVDF (piezoelectric sensing techniques), this paper attempts to study the propagation law of shock waves in brittle materials during the process of three-wavelength laser irradiation of polysilicon, and discusses the formation mechanism of thermal shock failure. The experimental results show that
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Based on PVDF (piezoelectric sensing techniques), this paper attempts to study the propagation law of shock waves in brittle materials during the process of three-wavelength laser irradiation of polysilicon, and discusses the formation mechanism of thermal shock failure. The experimental results show that the vapor pressure effect and the plasma pressure effect in the process of pulsed laser irradiation lead to the splashing of high temperature and high density melt. With the decrease of the laser wavelength, the laser breakdown threshold decreases and the shock wave is weakened. Because of the pressure effect of the laser shock, the brittle fracture zone is at the edge of the irradiated area. The surface tension gradient and surface shear wave caused by the surface wave are the result of coherent coupling between optical and thermodynamics. The average propagation velocity of laser shock wave in polysilicon is 8.47 × 103 m/s, and the experiment has reached the conclusion that the laser shock wave pressure peak exponentially distributes attenuation in the polysilicon. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Experimental Study on the Shear Hysteresis and Energy Dissipation of the Steel Frame with a Trapezoidal-Corrugated Steel Plate
Materials 2017, 10(3), 261; doi:10.3390/ma10030261
Received: 7 December 2016 / Accepted: 18 February 2017 / Published: 6 March 2017
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Abstract
The steel frame reinforced with steel shear wall is a lateral load resisting system and has higher strength and shear performance than the concrete shear wall system. Especially, using corrugated steel plates in these shear wall systems improves out-of-plane stiffness and flexibility in
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The steel frame reinforced with steel shear wall is a lateral load resisting system and has higher strength and shear performance than the concrete shear wall system. Especially, using corrugated steel plates in these shear wall systems improves out-of-plane stiffness and flexibility in the deformation along the corrugation. In this paper, a cyclic loading test of this steel frame reinforced with trapezoidal-corrugated steel plate was performed to evaluate the structural performance. The hysteresis behavior and the energy dissipation capacity of the steel frame were also compared according to the corrugated direction of the plate. For the test, one simple frame model without the wall and two frame models reinforced with the plate are considered and designed. The test results showed that the model reinforced with the corrugated steel plate had a greater accumulated energy dissipation capacity than the experimental result of the non-reinforced model. Furthermore, the energy dissipation curves of two reinforced frame models, which have different corrugated directions, produced similar results. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Separation of Lead with a Novel Ion Separating Agent Prepared by Clothing a Chitin Whisker on a Potassium Tetratitanate Whisker
Materials 2017, 10(3), 262; doi:10.3390/ma10030262
Received: 12 January 2017 / Revised: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 6 March 2017
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Abstract
Separation of Pb2+ from Cu2+-Pb2+ mixed solution by a newly-developed ion separating agent was examined, which was obtained by clothing chitin whiskers (ChW) on the surface of potassium tetratitanate whiskers (PTW). The separation capability and mechanism of the ion
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Separation of Pb2+ from Cu2+-Pb2+ mixed solution by a newly-developed ion separating agent was examined, which was obtained by clothing chitin whiskers (ChW) on the surface of potassium tetratitanate whiskers (PTW). The separation capability and mechanism of the ion separating agent (ChW-PTW) was determined, based on the difference of the adsorption isotherm pattern and the adsorption kinetics model between ChW and PTW on Cu2+ and Pb2+, respectively. The results showed that the adsorption process of ChW could be described by Freundlish isotherm. The adsorption affinity of Cu2+ (kF = 0.085·g−1) on ChW was greater than Pb2+ (kF = 0.077 g−1). The adsorption pattern of PTW was inclined to the Langmuir isotherm, and Pb2+ (kL = 310.59 L·mmol−1) could be obviously more easily adsorbed on PTW than Cu2+ (kL = 25.85 L·mmol−1). The experimental data both fitted well with the pseudo-second order kinetics. The reaction rate of Pb2+ (k2 = 4.442 for ChW and k2 = 0.846 for PTW) was greater than that of Cu2+ on both ChW and PTW, while the diffusion rate of intra-particles of PTW was much higher than ChW. The adsorption model of ChW and PTW could illustrate well the separation mechanism of ChW-PTW and allowed for relevant results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sorption Materials for Environment Purification)
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Open AccessArticle Verification of the Seismic Performance of a Rigidly Connected Modular System Depending on the Shape and Size of the Ceiling Bracket
Materials 2017, 10(3), 263; doi:10.3390/ma10030263
Received: 15 December 2016 / Revised: 23 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 6 March 2017
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Abstract
Modular systems have been mostly researched in relatively low-rise structures but, lately, their applications to mid- to high-rise structures began to be reviewed, and research interest in new modularization subjects has increased. The application of modular systems to mid- to high-rise structures requires
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Modular systems have been mostly researched in relatively low-rise structures but, lately, their applications to mid- to high-rise structures began to be reviewed, and research interest in new modularization subjects has increased. The application of modular systems to mid- to high-rise structures requires the structural stability of the frame and connections that consist of units, and the evaluation of the stiffness of structures that are combined in units. However, the combination of general units causes loss of the cross-section of columns or beams, resulting in low seismic performance and hindering installation works in the field. In addition, the evaluation of a frame considering such a cross-sectional loss is not easy. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a joint that is stable and easy to install. In the study, a rigidly connected modular system was proposed as a moment-resisting frame for a unit modular system, and their joints were developed and their performances were compared. The proposed system changed the ceiling beam into a bracket type to fasten bolts. It can be merged with other seismic force-resisting systems. To verify the seismic performance of the proposed system, a cyclic loading test was conducted, and the rigidly connected joint performance and integrated behavior at the joint of modular units were investigated. From the experimental results, the maximum resisting force of the proposed connection exceeded the theoretical parameters, indicating that a rigid joint structural performance could be secured. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Influence of the Manufacturing Process on Defects in the Galvanized Coating of High Carbon Steel Wires
Materials 2017, 10(3), 264; doi:10.3390/ma10030264
Received: 10 January 2017 / Revised: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 28 February 2017 / Published: 6 March 2017
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Abstract
This study is a detailed failure analysis of galvanized high carbon steel wires, which developed coating cracks during the torsion test performed as a quality control at the end of the manufacturing process. Careful visual inspections showed that the cracks are already present
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This study is a detailed failure analysis of galvanized high carbon steel wires, which developed coating cracks during the torsion test performed as a quality control at the end of the manufacturing process. Careful visual inspections showed that the cracks are already present in the coating before the torsion test. In order to explain the origin of these cracks, systematic metallographic investigations were performed by means of optical and scanning electron microscope on both the wires and the rods that have been cold drawn to produce the wire. The chemical composition of the galvanized coatings was evaluated by means of energy dispersive spectroscopy. Micro bidimensional X-ray diffraction experiments were also performed to measure the residual stresses in the galvanized coating. The results showed that the failure is related to two main factors: the relatively high content of silicon in the steel and the unsuitable cooling rate of the rods at the exit from the galvanizing bath. The mechanism proposed to explain the origin of the defects was supported by Finite Elements Methods simulations and verified with in-plant tests. The proper countermeasures were then applied and the problem successfully solved. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Efficient Violet Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) from a Conjugated Polymer (PFO-co-pX) in Solution
Materials 2017, 10(3), 265; doi:10.3390/ma10030265
Received: 17 January 2017 / Revised: 18 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 February 2017 / Published: 7 March 2017
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Abstract
The optical of conjugated polymer poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-(2,5-p-xylene)] also known as [(PFO-co-pX), ADS145UV], dissolved in a few solvents, has been measured. The absorption, emission spectra, and quantum yield have been investigated by using a spectrophotometer and spectrofluorometer, respectively. The properties of Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE)
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The optical of conjugated polymer poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-(2,5-p-xylene)] also known as [(PFO-co-pX), ADS145UV], dissolved in a few solvents, has been measured. The absorption, emission spectra, and quantum yield have been investigated by using a spectrophotometer and spectrofluorometer, respectively. The properties of Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) of conjugated PFO-co-pX polymer under different conditions such as solvent type, concentration, and pumping energy have been examined by using the tripled frequency of a Nd:YAG laser as a source of pumping. The relation between output energy and pumping energy for the samples with different concentrations in three solvents has been studied. In addition, efficiency and optical gain from the ASE were measured. Additionally, the stability of this polymer as a laser material was investigated. Among the host of conjugated polymer lasers obtained by optical pumping, this conjugated polymer has exhibited only one ASE band under a wide range of concentrations and pump power values. This is most likely due to the steric hindrance by the copolymer segment pX (2,5-p-xylene). This investigation has provided new insights into the excited state dynamics of conjugated polymer materials and has shown that this new conjugated polymer is quite efficient in the violet region. Full article
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Open AccessArticle BPPO-Based Anion Exchange Membranes for Acid Recovery via Diffusion Dialysis
Materials 2017, 10(3), 266; doi:10.3390/ma10030266
Received: 23 November 2016 / Revised: 1 March 2017 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 7 March 2017
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Abstract
To reduce the environmental impact of acids present in various industrial wastes, improved and robust anion exchange membranes (AEMs) are highly desired. Moreover, they should exhibit high retention of salts, fast acid permeation and they should be able to operate with low energy
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To reduce the environmental impact of acids present in various industrial wastes, improved and robust anion exchange membranes (AEMs) are highly desired. Moreover, they should exhibit high retention of salts, fast acid permeation and they should be able to operate with low energy input. In this work, AEMs are prepared using a facile solution-casting from brominated poly-(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (BPPO) and increasing amounts of 2-phenylimidazole (PI). Neither quaternary ammonium salts, nor ionic liquids and silica-containing compounds are involved in the synthesis. The prepared membranes showed an ion exchange capacity of 1.1–1.8 mmol/g, a water uptake of 22%–47%, a linear expansion ratio of 1%–6% and a tensile strength of 0.83–10.20 MPa. These membranes have potential for recovering waste acid via diffusion dialysis, as the acid dialysis coefficient (UH) at room temperature for HCl is in the range of 0.006–0.018 m/h while the separation factor (S) is in the range of 16–28, which are higher than commercial DF-120B membranes (UH = 0.004 m/h, S = 24). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Porous Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Sintering Temperature on Structural, Dielectric, and Magnetic Properties of Multiferroic YFeO3 Ceramics Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering
Materials 2017, 10(3), 267; doi:10.3390/ma10030267
Received: 2 December 2016 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 23 February 2017 / Published: 7 March 2017
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Abstract
Based on precursor powders with a size of 200–300 nm prepared by the low-temperature solid reaction method, phase-pure YFeO3 ceramics are fabricated using spark plasma sintering (SPS) at different temperatures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal that the high-purity
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Based on precursor powders with a size of 200–300 nm prepared by the low-temperature solid reaction method, phase-pure YFeO3 ceramics are fabricated using spark plasma sintering (SPS) at different temperatures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal that the high-purity YFeO3 ceramics can be prepared using SPS, while the results from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) show that the concentration of oxygen vacancies resulting from transformation from Fe3+ to Fe2+ is low. The relative density of the 1000 °C-sintered sample is as high as 97.7%, which is much higher than those of the samples sintered at other temperatures. The present dielectric and magnetic properties are much better than those of the samples fabricated by conventional methods. These findings indicate that the YFeO3 ceramics prepared by the low temperature solid reaction and SPS methods possess excellent dielectric and magnetic properties, making them suitable for potential applications involving magnetic storage. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Inducing Stable α + β Microstructures during Selective Laser Melting of Ti-6Al-4V Using Intensified Intrinsic Heat Treatments
Materials 2017, 10(3), 268; doi:10.3390/ma10030268
Received: 31 January 2017 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 7 March 2017
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Abstract Selective laser melting is a promising powder-bed-based additive manufacturing technique for titanium alloys: near net-shaped metallic components can be produced with high resource-efficiency and cost savings [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metals for Additive Manufacturing)
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Open AccessArticle Characterizing Adsorption Performance of Granular Activated Carbon with Permittivity
Materials 2017, 10(3), 269; doi:10.3390/ma10030269
Received: 29 November 2016 / Revised: 27 February 2017 / Accepted: 1 March 2017 / Published: 7 March 2017
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Abstract
A number of studies have achieved the consensus that microwave thermal technology can regenerate the granular activated carbon (GAC) more efficiently and energy-conservatively than other technologies. In particular, in the microwave heating industry, permittivity is a crucial parameter. This paper developed two equivalent
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A number of studies have achieved the consensus that microwave thermal technology can regenerate the granular activated carbon (GAC) more efficiently and energy-conservatively than other technologies. In particular, in the microwave heating industry, permittivity is a crucial parameter. This paper developed two equivalent models to establish the relationship between effective complex permittivity and pore volume of the GAC. It is generally based on Maxwell-Garnett approximation (MGA) theory. With two different assumptions in the model, two quantificational expressions were derived, respectively. Permittivity measurements and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) testing had been introduced in the experiments. Results confirmed the two expressions, which were extremely similar. Theoretical and experimental graphs were matched. This paper set up a bridge which links effective complex permittivity and pore volume of the GAC. Furthermore, it provides a potential and convenient method for the rapid assisted characterization of the GAC in its adsorption performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sorption Materials for Environment Purification)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of the Elastic Deformation of a Point-Sharp Indenter on Nanoindentation Behavior
Materials 2017, 10(3), 270; doi:10.3390/ma10030270
Received: 25 January 2017 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 7 March 2017
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Abstract The effect of the elastic deformation of a point-sharp indenter on the relationship between the indentation load P and penetration depth h (P-h curve) is examined through the numerical analysis of conical indentations simulated with the finite element method [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Nanoindentation in Materials)
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Open AccessArticle KDP Aqueous Solution-in-Oil Microemulsion for Ultra-Precision Chemical-Mechanical Polishing of KDP Crystal
Materials 2017, 10(3), 271; doi:10.3390/ma10030271
Received: 10 January 2017 / Revised: 3 March 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 9 March 2017
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Abstract
A novel functional KH2PO4 (KDP) aqueous solution-in-oil (KDP aq/O) microemulsion system for KDP crystal ultra-precision chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) was prepared. The system, which consisted of decanol, Triton X-100, and KH2PO4 aqueous solution, was available at room temperature.
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A novel functional KH2PO4 (KDP) aqueous solution-in-oil (KDP aq/O) microemulsion system for KDP crystal ultra-precision chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) was prepared. The system, which consisted of decanol, Triton X-100, and KH2PO4 aqueous solution, was available at room temperature. The functional KDP aq/O microemulsion system was systematically studied and applied as polishing solution to KDP CMP technology. In this study, a controlled deliquescent mechanism was proposed for KDP polishing with the KDP aq/O microemulsion. KDP aqueous solution, the chemical etchant in the polishing process, was caged into the micelles in the microemulsion, leading to a limitation of the reaction between the KDP crystal and KDP aqueous solution only if the microemulsion was deformed under the effect of the external force. Based on the interface reaction dynamics, KDP aqueous solutions with different concentrations (cKDP) were applied to replace water in the traditional water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsion. The practicability of the controlled deliquescent mechanism was proved by the decreasing material removal rate (MRR) with the increasing of the cKDP. As a result, the corrosion pits on the KDP surface were avoided to some degree. Moreover, the roughnesses of KDP with KDP aq/O microemulsion (cKDP was changed from 10 mM to 100 mM) as polishing solutions were smaller than that with the W/O microemulsion. The smallest surface root-mean-square roughness of 1.5 nm was obtained at a 30 mmol/L KDP aq solution, because of the most appropriate deliquescent rate and MRR. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Structural Evolution during Milling, Annealing, and Rapid Consolidation of Nanocrystalline Fe–10Cr–3Al Powder
Materials 2017, 10(3), 272; doi:10.3390/ma10030272
Received: 30 January 2017 / Revised: 1 March 2017 / Accepted: 3 March 2017 / Published: 9 March 2017
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Abstract
Structural changes during the deformation-induced synthesis of nanocrystalline Fe–10Cr–3Al alloy powder via high-energy ball milling followed by annealing and rapid consolidation by spark plasma sintering were investigated. Reduction in crystallite size was observed during the synthesis, which was associated with the lattice expansion
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Structural changes during the deformation-induced synthesis of nanocrystalline Fe–10Cr–3Al alloy powder via high-energy ball milling followed by annealing and rapid consolidation by spark plasma sintering were investigated. Reduction in crystallite size was observed during the synthesis, which was associated with the lattice expansion and rise in dislocation density, reflecting the generation of the excess grain boundary interfacial energy and the excess free volume. Subsequent annealing led to the exponential growth of the crystallites with a concomitant drop in the dislocation density. The rapid consolidation of the as-synthesized nanocrystalline alloy powder by the spark plasma sintering, on the other hand, showed only a limited grain growth due to the reduction of processing time for the consolidation by about 95% when compared to annealing at the same temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Strain Effect on Electronic Structure and Work Function in α-Fe2O3 Films
Materials 2017, 10(3), 273; doi:10.3390/ma10030273
Received: 14 January 2017 / Revised: 4 March 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 9 March 2017
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Abstract
We investigate the electronic structure and work function modulation of α-Fe2O3 films by strain based on the density functional method. We find that the band gap of clean α-Fe2O3 films is a function of the strain and
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We investigate the electronic structure and work function modulation of α-Fe2O3 films by strain based on the density functional method. We find that the band gap of clean α-Fe2O3 films is a function of the strain and is influenced significantly by the element termination on the surface. The px and py orbitals keep close to Fermi level and account for a pronounced narrowing band gap under compressive strain, while unoccupied dz2 orbitals from conduction band minimum draw nearer to Fermi level and are responsible for the pronounced narrowing band gap under tensile strain. The spin polarized surface state, arising from localized dangling-bond states, is insensitive to strain, while the bulk band, especially for pz orbital, arising from extended Bloch states, is very sensitive to strain, which plays an important role for work function decreasing (increasing) under compressive (tensile) strain in Fe termination films. In particular, the work function in O terminated films is insensitive to strain because pz orbitals are less sensitive to strain than that of Fe termination films. Our findings confirm that the strain is an effective means to manipulate electronic structures and corrosion potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stress Corrosion Cracking in Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Mechanical Behavior of Recycled Aggregate Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Columns before and after Fire
Materials 2017, 10(3), 274; doi:10.3390/ma10030274
Received: 10 January 2017 / Revised: 26 February 2017 / Accepted: 2 March 2017 / Published: 9 March 2017
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Abstract
Recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) is an environmentally friendly building material. This paper investigates the mechanical behavior of recycled aggregate concrete filled steel tube (RACFST) columns exposed to fire. Two groups of 12 columns were designed and tested, under axial compression, before and after
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Recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) is an environmentally friendly building material. This paper investigates the mechanical behavior of recycled aggregate concrete filled steel tube (RACFST) columns exposed to fire. Two groups of 12 columns were designed and tested, under axial compression, before and after fire, to evaluate the degradation of bearing capacity due to fire exposure. Six specimens were subjected to axial compression tests at room temperature and the other six specimens were subjected to axial compression tests after a fire exposure. The main parameters of the specimens include the wall thickness of the steel tube (steel content) and the type of concrete materials. Several parameters as obtained from the experimental results were compared and analyzed, including the load-bearing capacity, deformation capacity, and failure characteristics of the specimens. Meanwhile, rate of loss of bearing capacity of specimens exposed to fire were calculated based on the standards EC4 and CECS28:90. The results show that concrete material has a large influence on the rate of loss of bearing capacity in the case of a relatively lower steel ratio. While steel content has little effect on the rate of loss of bearing capacity of concrete-filled steel tube (CFST) columns after fire, it has a relatively large influence on the loss rate of bearing capacity of the RACFST columns. The loss of bearing capacity of the specimens from the experiment is more serious than that from the calculation. As the calculated values are less conservative, particular attention should be given to the application of recycled aggregate concrete in actual structures. Full article
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