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Materials 2009, 2(2), 374-398; doi:10.3390/ma2020374

The Mechanical and Biological Properties of Chitosan Scaffolds for Tissue Regeneration Templates Are Significantly Enhanced by Chitosan from Gongronella butleri

1
Faculty of Chemistry, Materials and Bioengineering and HRC, Kansai University, Suita, Osaka 564-8680, Japan
2
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 March 2009 / Revised: 5 April 2009 / Accepted: 14 April 2009 / Published: 20 April 2009
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biocompatibility of Materials)
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Abstract

Chitosan with a molecular weight (MW) of 104 Da and 13% degree of acetylation (DA) was extracted from the mycelia of the fungus Gongronella butleri USDB 0201 grown in solid substrate fermentation and used to prepare scaffolds by the freeze-drying method. The mechanical and biological properties of the fungal chitosan scaffolds were evaluated and compared with those of scaffolds prepared using chitosans obtained from shrimp and crab shells and squid bone plates (MW 105-106 Da and DA 10-20%). Under scanning electron microscopy, it was observed that all scaffolds had average pore sizes of approximately 60-90 mm in diameter. Elongated pores were observed in shrimp chitosan scaffolds and polygonal pores were found in crab, squid and fungal chitosan scaffolds. The physico-chemical properties of the chitosans had an effect on the formation of pores in the scaffolds, that consequently influenced the mechanical and biological properties of the scaffolds. Fungal chitosan scaffolds showed excellent mechanical, water absorption and lysozyme degradation properties, whereas shrimp chitosan scaffolds (MW 106Da and DA 12%) exhibited the lowest water absorption properties and lysozyme degradation rate. In the evaluation of biocompatibility of chitosan scaffolds, the ability of fibroblast NIH/3T3 cells to attach on all chitosan scaffolds was similar, but the proliferation of cells with polygonal morphology was faster on crab, squid and fungal chitosan scaffolds than on shrimp chitosan scaffolds. Therefore fungal chitosan scaffold, which has excellent mechanical and biological properties, is the most suitable scaffold to use as a template for tissue regeneration.
Keywords: Characteristics; chitosan scaffolds; degradation; fungal chitosan; tissue regeneration template Characteristics; chitosan scaffolds; degradation; fungal chitosan; tissue regeneration template
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nwe, N.; Furuike, T.; Tamura, H. The Mechanical and Biological Properties of Chitosan Scaffolds for Tissue Regeneration Templates Are Significantly Enhanced by Chitosan from Gongronella butleri. Materials 2009, 2, 374-398.

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