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Materials 2014, 7(1), 16-29; doi:10.3390/ma7010016
Article

Effect of Acid Hydrolysis Conditions on the Properties of Cellulose Nanoparticle-Reinforced Polymethylmethacrylate Composites

1,* , 1
,
2
,
2
 and
2
1 Key Laboratory of Bio-based Material Science and Technology (Ministry of Education), Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China 2 School of Renewable Natural Resources, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 October 2013 / Revised: 28 November 2013 / Accepted: 16 December 2013 / Published: 20 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterials)
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Abstract

Cellulose nanoparticles (CNPs) were prepared from microcrystalline cellulose using two concentration levels of sulfuric acid (i.e., 48 wt% and 64 wt% with produced CNPs designated as CNPs-48 and CNPs-64, respectively) followed by high-pressure homogenization. CNP-reinforced polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) composite films at various CNP loadings were made using solvent exchange and solution casting methods. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) transmittance spectra between 400 and 800 nm showed that CNPs-64/PMMA composites had a significantly higher optical transmittance than that of CNPs-48/PMMA. Their transmittance decreased with increased CNP loadings. The addition of CNPs to the PMMA matrix reduced composite’s coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), and CNPs-64/PMMA had a lower CTE than CNPs-48/PMMA at the same CNP level. Reinforcement effect was achieved with the addition of CNPs to the PMMA matrix, especially at higher temperature levels. CNPs-64/PMMA exhibited a higher storage modulus compared with CNPs-48/PMMA material. All CNP-reinforced composites showed higher Young’s modulus and tensile strengths than pure PMMA. The effect increased with increased CNP loadings in the PMMA matrix for both CNPs-64/PMMA and CNPs-48/PMMA composites. CNPs affected the Young’s modulus more than they affected the tensile strength.
Keywords: cellulose nanoparticles; PMMA; thermal expansion; mechanical properties cellulose nanoparticles; PMMA; thermal expansion; mechanical properties
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Han, G.; Huan, S.; Han, J.; Zhang, Z.; Wu, Q. Effect of Acid Hydrolysis Conditions on the Properties of Cellulose Nanoparticle-Reinforced Polymethylmethacrylate Composites. Materials 2014, 7, 16-29.

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