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Materials 2014, 7(3), 2062-2086; doi:10.3390/ma7032062

Low Concentration Fe-Doped Alumina Catalysts Using Sol-Gel and Impregnation Methods: The Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Performance during the Combustion of Trichloroethylene

1,2,* , 1
1 Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Ave. Universidad S/N, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León 64451, Mexico 2 Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Centro de Innovación, Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería y Tecnología (CIIDIT), Km 10 de la nueva carretera al Aeropuerto Internacional de Monterrey, PIIT Monterrey, Apodaca, Nuevo León 66600, Mexico 3 Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, UNAM, CNyN, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada, Baja California 22800, Mexico 4 Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Central L. Cárdenas 152, AP 14-805, 07730 Mexico, D.F., Mexico
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 February 2014 / Revised: 26 February 2014 / Accepted: 4 March 2014 / Published: 12 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Section Structure Analysis and Characterization)
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The role of iron in two modes of integration into alumina catalysts was studied at 0.39 wt% Fe and tested in trichloroethylene combustion. One modified alumina was synthesized using the sol-gel method with Fe added in situ during hydrolysis; another modification was performed using calcined alumina, prepared using the sol-gel method and impregnated with Fe. Several characterization techniques were used to study the level of Fe modification in the γ-Al2O3 phase formed and to correlate the catalytic properties during trichloroethylene (TCE) combustion. The introduction of Fe in situ during the sol-gel process influenced the crystallite size, and three iron species were generated, namely, magnetite, maghemite and hematite. The impregnated Fe-alumina formed hematite and maghemite, which were highly dispersed on the γ-Al2O3 surface. The X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), FT-IR and Mössbauer spectroscopy analyses revealed how Fe interacted with the γ-Al2O3 lattice in both catalysts. The impregnated Fe-catalyst showed the best catalytic performance compared to the catalyst that was Fe-doped in situ by the sol-gel method; both had better catalytic activity than pure alumina. This difference in activity was correlated with the accessibility of the reactants to the hematite iron species on the surface. The chlorine poisoning for all three catalysts was less than 1.8%.
Keywords: alumina; impregnation; sol-gel; trichloroethylene alumina; impregnation; sol-gel; trichloroethylene
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Maldonado, C.S.; De la Rosa, J.R.; Lucio-Ortiz, C.J.; Hernández-Ramírez, A.; Barraza, F.F.C.; Valente, J.S. Low Concentration Fe-Doped Alumina Catalysts Using Sol-Gel and Impregnation Methods: The Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Performance during the Combustion of Trichloroethylene. Materials 2014, 7, 2062-2086.

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