Next Article in Journal
Protection of Mice from Lethal Vaccinia Virus Infection by Vaccinia Virus Protein Subunits with a CpG Adjuvant
Previous Article in Journal
Two Distinct Clinical Courses of Human Cowpox, Germany, 2015
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Viruses 2017, 9(12), 376; doi:10.3390/v9120376

Host Cell Restriction Factors that Limit Influenza A Infection

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Melbourne at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
WHO Collaborating Centre for Reference and Research on Influenza, Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 November 2017 / Revised: 4 December 2017 / Accepted: 5 December 2017 / Published: 7 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2494 KB, uploaded 7 December 2017]   |  


Viral infection of different cell types induces a unique spectrum of host defence genes, including interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) and genes encoding other proteins with antiviral potential. Although hundreds of ISGs have been described, the vast majority have not been functionally characterised. Cellular proteins with putative antiviral activity (hereafter referred to as “restriction factors”) can target various steps in the virus life-cycle. In the context of influenza virus infection, restriction factors have been described that target virus entry, genomic replication, translation and virus release. Genome wide analyses, in combination with ectopic overexpression and/or gene silencing studies, have accelerated the identification of restriction factors that are active against influenza and other viruses, as well as providing important insights regarding mechanisms of antiviral activity. Herein, we review current knowledge regarding restriction factors that mediate anti-influenza virus activity and consider the viral countermeasures that are known to limit their impact. Moreover, we consider the strengths and limitations of experimental approaches to study restriction factors, discrepancies between in vitro and in vivo studies, and the potential to exploit restriction factors to limit disease caused by influenza and other respiratory viruses. View Full-Text
Keywords: influenza; innate; restriction factor; replication; interferon-stimulated gene influenza; innate; restriction factor; replication; interferon-stimulated gene

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Villalón-Letelier, F.; Brooks, A.G.; Saunders, P.M.; Londrigan, S.L.; Reading, P.C. Host Cell Restriction Factors that Limit Influenza A Infection. Viruses 2017, 9, 376.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top