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Viruses 2017, 9(8), 233; doi:10.3390/v9080233

Roles of APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B in Human Papillomavirus Infection and Disease Progression

1
Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
2
BIO5 Institute, School of Animal and Comparative Biomedical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
3
Department of Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
Current address: BioFrontiers Institute, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80303, USA.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alison A. McBride and Karl Munger
Received: 26 July 2017 / Revised: 16 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 21 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Expert Views on HPV Infection)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1494 KB, uploaded 23 August 2017]   |  

Abstract

The apolipoprotein B messenger RNA-editing, enzyme-catalytic, polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) family of cytidine deaminases plays an important role in the innate immune response to viral infections by editing viral genomes. However, the cytidine deaminase activity of APOBEC3 enzymes also induces somatic mutations in host genomes, which may drive cancer progression. Recent studies of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and disease outcome highlight this duality. HPV infection is potently inhibited by one family member, APOBEC3A. Expression of APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B is highly elevated by the HPV oncoproteins E6 and E7 during persistent virus infection and disease progression. Furthermore, there is a high prevalence of APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B mutation signatures in HPV-associated cancers. These findings suggest that induction of an APOBEC3-mediated antiviral response during HPV infection may inadvertently contribute to cancer mutagenesis and virus evolution. Here, we discuss current understanding of APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B biology in HPV restriction, evolution, and associated cancer mutagenesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: Keywords: papillomavirus; human papillomavirus (HPV); apolipoprotein B messenger RNA-editing, enzyme-catalytic, polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3); innate immunity; virus restriction; cancer mutagenesis; cancer progression; somatic mutation; virus evolution Keywords: papillomavirus; human papillomavirus (HPV); apolipoprotein B messenger RNA-editing, enzyme-catalytic, polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3); innate immunity; virus restriction; cancer mutagenesis; cancer progression; somatic mutation; virus evolution
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Warren, C.J.; Westrich, J.A.; Doorslaer, K.V.; Pyeon, D. Roles of APOBEC3A and APOBEC3B in Human Papillomavirus Infection and Disease Progression. Viruses 2017, 9, 233.

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