Next Article in Journal
Inclusive Protected Area Management in the Amazon: The Importance of Social Networks over Ecological Knowledge
Next Article in Special Issue
Climate and Food Production: Understanding Vulnerability from Past Trends in Africa’s Sudan-Sahel
Previous Article in Journal
Publication Growth in Biological Sub-Fields: Patterns, Predictability and Sustainability
Previous Article in Special Issue
An Exergy-Based Model for Population Dynamics: Adaptation, Mutualism, Commensalism and Selective Extinction
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessCommunication
Sustainability 2012, 4(12), 3248-3259; doi:10.3390/su4123248

General Resilience to Cope with Extreme Events

Center for Limnology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA
Department of Economics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
School of International and Public Affairs/The Earth Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA
Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
Department of Economics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Box 50005, 10405 Stockholm, Sweden
Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811, Australia
Department of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
Department of Economics, Uppsala University, Box 513, 751-20 Uppsala, Sweden
Department of Applied Economics, University of Minnesota, 1994 Buford Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA
Department of Environmental Sciences, Wageningen University, PO Box 8080, 6700 DD, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Department of Economics and Finance, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071, USA
Environmental Defense Fund, New York, NY 10010, USA
Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Box 90328, Durham, NC 27708, USA
Sustainable Ecosystems, GPO Box 284, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
Athens University of Economics and Business, 76 Patission Street, 104 34 Athens, Greece
Department of Economics and Center, Tilburg University, PO Box 90153, 5000 LE Tilburg, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 October 2012 / Accepted: 14 November 2012 / Published: 28 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adaptation or Extinction)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [177 KB, 24 February 2015; original version 24 February 2015]


Resilience to specified kinds of disasters is an active area of research and practice. However, rare or unprecedented disturbances that are unusually intense or extensive require a more broad-spectrum type of resilience. General resilience is the capacity of social-ecological systems to adapt or transform in response to unfamiliar, unexpected and extreme shocks. Conditions that enable general resilience include diversity, modularity, openness, reserves, feedbacks, nestedness, monitoring, leadership, and trust. Processes for building general resilience are an emerging and crucially important area of research. View Full-Text
Keywords: extreme events; general resilience; polycentric governance; resilience; social-ecological system extreme events; general resilience; polycentric governance; resilience; social-ecological system
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Carpenter, S.R.; Arrow, K.J.; Barrett, S.; Biggs, R.; Brock, W.A.; Crépin, A.-S.; Engström, G.; Folke, C.; Hughes, T.P.; Kautsky, N.; Li, C.-Z.; McCarney, G.; Meng, K.; Mäler, K.-G.; Polasky, S.; Scheffer, M.; Shogren, J.; Sterner, T.; Vincent, J.R.; Walker, B.; Xepapadeas, A.; Zeeuw, A.D. General Resilience to Cope with Extreme Events. Sustainability 2012, 4, 3248-3259.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top