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Sustainability 2017, 9(5), 856; doi:10.3390/su9050856

Food Image Recognition via Superpixel Based Low-Level and Mid-Level Distance Coding for Smart Home Applications

Electrical and Computer Engineering, the University of British Columbia, 5500-2332 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
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Academic Editor: Qingchen Zhang
Received: 28 February 2017 / Revised: 4 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 19 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart X for Sustainability)
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Abstract

Food image recognition is a key enabler for many smart home applications such as smart kitchen and smart personal nutrition log. In order to improve living experience and life quality, smart home systems collect valuable insights of users’ preferences, nutrition intake and health conditions via accurate and robust food image recognition. In addition, efficiency is also a major concern since many smart home applications are deployed on mobile devices where high-end GPUs are not available. In this paper, we investigate compact and efficient food image recognition methods, namely low-level and mid-level approaches. Considering the real application scenario where only limited and noisy data are available, we first proposed a superpixel based Linear Distance Coding (LDC) framework where distinctive low-level food image features are extracted to improve performance. On a challenging small food image dataset where only 12 training images are available per category, our framework has shown superior performance in both accuracy and robustness. In addition, to better model deformable food part distribution, we extend LDC’s feature-to-class distance idea and propose a mid-level superpixel food parts-to-class distance mining framework. The proposed framework show superior performance on a benchmark food image datasets compared to other low-level and mid-level approaches in the literature. View Full-Text
Keywords: food image recognition; smart home applications; low-level and mid-level approaches; superpixels segmentation food image recognition; smart home applications; low-level and mid-level approaches; superpixels segmentation
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Zheng, J.; Wang, Z.J.; Zhu, C. Food Image Recognition via Superpixel Based Low-Level and Mid-Level Distance Coding for Smart Home Applications. Sustainability 2017, 9, 856.

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