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Remote Sens. 2017, 9(1), 61; doi:10.3390/rs9010061

Atmospheric Corrections and Multi-Conditional Algorithm for Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing of Suspended Particulate Matter in Low-to-High Turbidity Levels Coastal Waters

1
Laboratoire d’Océanographie de Villefranche, UMR7093 CNRS/UPMC, 181 Chemin du Lazaret, 06230 Villefranche-sur-Mer, France
2
Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels 1000, Belgium
3
GEO-Transfert, UMR 5805 Environnements et Paléo-environnements Océaniques et Continentaux (EPOC), Université de Bordeaux, Allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 33615 Pessac, France
4
UMR CNRS 5805 EPOC, OASU, Université de Bordeaux, site de Talence, Bâtiment B18, Allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 33615 Bordeaux Cedex, France
5
Mer Molécules Santé (EA 2160 MMS), Université de Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssinière BP 92208, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Yunlin Zhang, Claudia Giardino, Linhai Li, Xiaofeng Li and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 20 September 2016 / Revised: 15 December 2016 / Accepted: 3 January 2017 / Published: 12 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Optics and Water Colour Remote Sensing)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [6705 KB, uploaded 12 January 2017]   |  

Abstract

The accurate measurement of suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations in coastal waters is of crucial importance for ecosystem studies, sediment transport monitoring, and assessment of anthropogenic impacts in the coastal ocean. Ocean color remote sensing is an efficient tool to monitor SPM spatio-temporal variability in coastal waters. However, near-shore satellite images are complex to correct for atmospheric effects due to the proximity of land and to the high level of reflectance caused by high SPM concentrations in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions. The water reflectance signal (ρw) tends to saturate at short visible wavelengths when the SPM concentration increases. Using a comprehensive dataset of high-resolution satellite imagery and in situ SPM and water reflectance data, this study presents (i) an assessment of existing atmospheric correction (AC) algorithms developed for turbid coastal waters; and (ii) a switching method that automatically selects the most sensitive SPM vs. ρw relationship, to avoid saturation effects when computing the SPM concentration. The approach is applied to satellite data acquired by three medium-high spatial resolution sensors (Landsat-8/Operational Land Imager, National Polar-Orbiting Partnership/Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite and Aqua/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) to map the SPM concentration in some of the most turbid areas of the European coastal ocean, namely the Gironde and Loire estuaries as well as Bourgneuf Bay on the French Atlantic coast. For all three sensors, AC methods based on the use of short-wave infrared (SWIR) spectral bands were tested, and the consistency of the retrieved water reflectance was examined along transects from low- to high-turbidity waters. For OLI data, we also compared a SWIR-based AC (ACOLITE) with a method based on multi-temporal analyses of atmospheric constituents (MACCS). For the selected scenes, the ACOLITE-MACCS difference was lower than 7%. Despite some inaccuracies in ρw retrieval, we demonstrate that the SPM concentration can be reliably estimated using OLI, MODIS and VIIRS, regardless of their differences in spatial and spectral resolutions. Match-ups between the OLI-derived SPM concentration and autonomous field measurements from the Loire and Gironde estuaries’ monitoring networks provided satisfactory results. The multi-sensor approach together with the multi-conditional algorithm presented here can be applied to the latest generation of ocean color sensors (namely Sentinel2/MSI and Sentinel3/OLCI) to study SPM dynamics in the coastal ocean at higher spatial and temporal resolutions. View Full-Text
Keywords: remote sensing; suspended particulate matter; coastal waters; river plumes; multi-conditional algorithm remote sensing; suspended particulate matter; coastal waters; river plumes; multi-conditional algorithm
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Novoa, S.; Doxaran, D.; Ody, A.; Vanhellemont, Q.; Lafon, V.; Lubac, B.; Gernez, P. Atmospheric Corrections and Multi-Conditional Algorithm for Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing of Suspended Particulate Matter in Low-to-High Turbidity Levels Coastal Waters. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 61.

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