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Remote Sens. 2017, 9(12), 1274; doi:10.3390/rs9121274

Performance Evaluation of Downscaling Sentinel-2 Imagery for Land Use and Land Cover Classification by Spectral-Spatial Features

1
Key Laboratory for Satellite Mapping Technology and Applications of National Administration of Surveying, Mapping and Geoinformation of China, Nanjing 210023, China
2
Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science and Technology, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
3
Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8654, Japan
4
School of Resource Engineering, Longyan University, Longyan 364012, China
5
Collaborative Innovation Center for the South China Sea Studies, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 November 2017 / Revised: 4 December 2017 / Accepted: 6 December 2017 / Published: 7 December 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing Image Downscaling)
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Abstract

Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) classification is vital for environmental and ecological applications. Sentinel-2 is a new generation land monitoring satellite with the advantages of novel spectral capabilities, wide coverage and fine spatial and temporal resolutions. The effects of different spatial resolution unification schemes and methods on LULC classification have been scarcely investigated for Sentinel-2. This paper bridged this gap by comparing the differences between upscaling and downscaling as well as different downscaling algorithms from the point of view of LULC classification accuracy. The studied downscaling algorithms include nearest neighbor resampling and five popular pansharpening methods, namely, Gram-Schmidt (GS), nearest neighbor diffusion (NNDiffusion), PANSHARP algorithm proposed by Y. Zhang, wavelet transformation fusion (WTF) and high-pass filter fusion (HPF). Two spatial features, textural metrics derived from Grey-Level-Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and extended attribute profiles (EAPs), are investigated to make up for the shortcoming of pixel-based spectral classification. Random forest (RF) is adopted as the classifier. The experiment was conducted in Xitiaoxi watershed, China. The results demonstrated that downscaling obviously outperforms upscaling in terms of classification accuracy. For downscaling, image sharpening has no obvious advantages than spatial interpolation. Different image sharpening algorithms have distinct effects. Two multiresolution analysis (MRA)-based methods, i.e., WTF and HFP, achieve the best performance. GS achieved a similar accuracy with NNDiffusion and PANSHARP. Compared to image sharpening, the introduction of spatial features, both GLCM and EAPs can greatly improve the classification accuracy for Sentinel-2 imagery. Their effects on overall accuracy are similar but differ significantly to specific classes. In general, using the spectral bands downscaled by nearest neighbor interpolation can meet the requirements of regional LULC applications, and the GLCM and EAPs spatial features can be used to obtain more precise classification maps. View Full-Text
Keywords: Sentinel-2; LULC classification; downscaling; pan-sharpen; GLCM; EAPs Sentinel-2; LULC classification; downscaling; pan-sharpen; GLCM; EAPs
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zheng, H.; Du, P.; Chen, J.; Xia, J.; Li, E.; Xu, Z.; Li, X.; Yokoya, N. Performance Evaluation of Downscaling Sentinel-2 Imagery for Land Use and Land Cover Classification by Spectral-Spatial Features. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 1274.

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