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Nutrients 2013, 5(11), 4540-4552; doi:10.3390/nu5114540
Article

Lectin Staining Shows no Evidence of Involvement of Glycocalyx/Mucous Layer Carbohydrate Structures in Development of Celiac Disease

1,2,* , 2
,
3
,
1
 and
2
1 Hans Christian Andersen Children's Hospital, Odense University Hospital, Sdr. Boulevard 29, Odense 5000, Denmark 2 Department of Clinical Immunology, Odense University Hospital, Sdr. Boulevard 29, Odense 5000, Denmark 3 Department of Pathology, Odense University Hospital, J.B. Winsløws Vej 15, 2., Odense 5000, Denmark
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 September 2013 / Revised: 29 October 2013 / Accepted: 6 November 2013 / Published: 18 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Celiac Disease)
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Abstract

The presence of unique carbohydrate structures in the glycocalyx/mucous layer of the intestine may be involved in a susceptibility to celiac disease (CD) by serving as attachment sites for bacteria. This host-microbiota interaction may influence the development of CD and possibly other diseases with autoimmune components. We examined duodenal biopsies from a total of 30 children, of which 10 had both celiac disease (CD) and type 1 diabetes (T1D); 10 had CD alone; and 10 were suspected of having gastrointestinal disease, but had normal duodenal histology (non-CD controls). Patients with both CD and T1D were examined before and after remission following a gluten-free diet. We performed lectin histochemistry using peanut agglutinin (PNA) and Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA) staining for Gal-β(1,3)-GalNAc and Fucα1-2Gal-R, respectively, of the glycocalyx/mucous layer. The staining was scored based on dissemination of stained structures on a scale from 0 to 3. Evaluation of the scores revealed no difference between biopsies obtained before and after remission in the group of children with both CD and T1D. A comparison of this pre-remission group with the children who had CD alone or the non-CD controls also showed no significant differences. Based on our material, we found no indication that the presence of Gal-β(1,3)-GalNAc or Fucα1-2Gal-R is involved in the susceptibility to CD, or that the disease process affects the expression of these carbohydrates.
Keywords: pediatric celiac disease; type 1 diabetes; duodenal biopsies; glycosylation; lectin staining pediatric celiac disease; type 1 diabetes; duodenal biopsies; glycosylation; lectin staining
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Toft-Hansen, H.; Nielsen, C.; Biagini, M.; Husby, S.; Lillevang, S.T. Lectin Staining Shows no Evidence of Involvement of Glycocalyx/Mucous Layer Carbohydrate Structures in Development of Celiac Disease. Nutrients 2013, 5, 4540-4552.

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