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Nutrients 2013, 5(3), 758-770; doi:10.3390/nu5030758

Is There a Therapeutic Role for Selenium in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency?

Respiratory Research Division, Department of Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin 9, Ireland
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Received: 14 December 2012 / Revised: 22 February 2013 / Accepted: 26 February 2013 / Published: 11 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Selenium and Health)
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Abstract

Selenium is an essential trace mineral of fundamental importance to human health. Much of its beneficial influence is attributed to its presence within selenoproteins, a group of proteins containing the rare amino acid selenocysteine. There are 25 known human selenoproteins including glutathione peroxidases, thioredoxin reductases and selenoproteins. Selenoprotein S (SEPS1) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident selenoprotein involved in the removal of misfolded proteins from the ER. SEPS1 expression can be induced by ER stress, an event that is associated with conformational disorders and occurs due to accumulation of misfolded proteins within the ER. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, also known as genetic emphysema, is a conformational disorder in which the roles of ER stress, SEPS1 and selenium have been investigated. SEPS1 can relieve ER stress in an in vitro model of AAT deficiency by reducing levels of active ATF6 and inhibiting grp78 promoter- and NFκB activity; some of these effects are enhanced in the presence of selenium supplementation. Other studies examining the molecular mechanisms by which selenium mediates its anti-inflammatory effects have identified a role for prostaglandin 15d-PGJ2 in targeting NFκB and PPARγ. Together these ER stress-relieving and anti-inflammatory properties suggest a therapeutic potential for selenium supplementation in genetic emphysema. View Full-Text
Keywords: selenium; selenoprotein S; alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease selenium; selenoprotein S; alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Greene, C.M.; Chhabra, R.; McElvaney, N.G. Is There a Therapeutic Role for Selenium in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency? Nutrients 2013, 5, 758-770.

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