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Nutrients 2013, 5(9), 3605-3616; doi:10.3390/nu5093605

Vitamin D: Deficiency, Sufficiency and Toxicity

Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh 14611, Saudi Arabia
Specialized Diabetes and Endocrine Center, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh 59046, Saudi Arabia
Faculty of Medicine, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh 22490, Saudi Arabia
Prince Mutaib Chair for Biomarkers of Osteoporosis, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 May 2013 / Revised: 21 August 2013 / Accepted: 27 August 2013 / Published: 13 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin D and Human Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [180 KB, uploaded 13 September 2013]


The plethora of vitamin D studies over the recent years highlight the pleomorphic effects of vitamin D outside its conventional role in calcium and bone homeostasis. Vitamin D deficiency, though common and known, still faces several challenges among the medical community in terms of proper diagnosis and correction. In this review, the different levels of vitamin D and its clinical implications are highlighted. Recommendations and consensuses for the appropriate dose and duration for each vitamin D status are also emphasized.
Keywords: vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; vitamin D toxicity vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; vitamin D toxicity
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Alshahrani, F.; Aljohani, N. Vitamin D: Deficiency, Sufficiency and Toxicity. Nutrients 2013, 5, 3605-3616.

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