Next Article in Journal
Gut Microbiota and Cardiovascular Uremic Toxicities
Previous Article in Journal
Complexation of the Mycotoxin Cyclopiazonic Acid with Lanthanides Yields Luminescent Products
Previous Article in Special Issue
Leukotoxin of Bibersteinia trehalosi Contains a Unique Neutralizing Epitope, and a Non-Neutralizing Epitope Shared with Mannheimia haemolytica Leukotoxin
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2018, 10(7), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10070286

Synergistic Effects of Influenza and Staphylococcus aureus Toxins on Inflammation Activation and Cytotoxicity in Human Monocytic Cell Lines

1
Laboratoire de Virologie, Institut des Agents Infectieux, Groupement Hospitalier Nord des Hospices Civils de Lyon, CEDEX 04, 69317 Lyon, France
2
Laboratoire de Virologie et Pathologies Humaines Virpath, CIRI, Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie, Université de Lyon, Inserm U1111, CNRS UMR5308, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CEDEX 08, 69372 Lyon, France
3
Pathogénie des Staphylocoques, CIRI, Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie, Université de Lyon, Inserm U1111, CNRS UMR5308, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CEDEX 08, 69372 Lyon, France
4
Laboratoire de Bactériologie, Institut des Agents Infectieux, Groupement Hospitalier Nord des Hospices Civils de Lyon, CEDEX 04, 69317 Lyon, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 May 2018 / Revised: 29 June 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 11 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Leukotoxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1795 KB, uploaded 11 July 2018]   |  

Abstract

In patients with influenza, morbidity and mortality are strongly influenced by infections with Staphylococcus aureus producing high amounts of certain toxins. Here we tested the impact of influenza virus on the pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic actions of a panel of S. aureus virulence factors, including Panton-Valentine Leucocidin (PVL), phenol-soluble modulin α1 (PSMα1) and 3 (PSMα3), α-hemolysin (Hla), and cell wall components, i.e., heat-killed S. aureus (HKSA) and protein A. We initially screened for potential synergic interactions using a standardized in vitro model in influenza-infected continuous human monocytic cell lines. Then we tested the identified associations using an ex vivo model in influenza-infected human monocytes freshly isolated from blood. Co-exposure to influenza virus and HKSA, PVL, PSMα1, and PSMα3 increased NF-κB/AP-1 pathway activation in THP1-XBlue cells, and co-exposure to influenza virus and PVL increased cytotoxicity in U937 cells. In monocytes isolated from blood, the synergy between influenza virus and HKSA was confirmed based on cytokine production (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6), and co-exposure to influenza virus and Hla-increased cytotoxicity. Our findings suggest that influenza virus potentiates the pro-inflammatory action of HKSA and contributes to the cytotoxicity of Hla on monocytes. Synergic interactions identified in the cell-line model must be cautiously interpreted since few were relevant in the ex vivo model. View Full-Text
Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus; toxins; influenza A virus; monocyte; coinfection; inflammation; cytotoxicity Staphylococcus aureus; toxins; influenza A virus; monocyte; coinfection; inflammation; cytotoxicity
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Jeannoel, M.; Casalegno, J.-S.; Ottmann, M.; Badiou, C.; Dumitrescu, O.; Lina, B.; Lina, G. Synergistic Effects of Influenza and Staphylococcus aureus Toxins on Inflammation Activation and Cytotoxicity in Human Monocytic Cell Lines. Toxins 2018, 10, 286.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top