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Toxins, Volume 4, Issue 4 (April 2012), Pages 228-295

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Mutagenicity of Ochratoxin A and Its Hydroquinone Metabolite in the SupF Gene of the Mutation Reporter Plasmid Ps189
Toxins 2012, 4(4), 267-280; doi:10.3390/toxins4040267
Received: 9 February 2012 / Revised: 29 March 2012 / Accepted: 6 April 2012 / Published: 16 April 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin that enhances renal tumor formation in the outer medulla of male rat kidney. Direct DNA damage and subsequent mutagenicity may contribute to these processes. In this study we have determined whether OTA in the absence or [...] Read more.
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin that enhances renal tumor formation in the outer medulla of male rat kidney. Direct DNA damage and subsequent mutagenicity may contribute to these processes. In this study we have determined whether OTA in the absence or presence of activated rat liver microsomes (RLM) or redox-active transition metals (Fe(III) or Cu(II)) causes promutagenic DNA damage in the supF gene of the mutation reporter plasmid pS189 replicating in human Ad293 cells. In addition, we have assessed the mutagenicity of the hydroquinone metabolite (OTHQ) of OTA in the absence or presence of cysteine without added cofactors. Our results show that oxidation of OTA, either by RLM or by transition metal ions, activates OTA to a directly genotoxic mutagen(s). The Fe(III)/OTA system was the most potent mutagen in our experimental system, causing a 32-fold increase in mutant fraction (MF) above the spontaneous control MF. The Cu(II)/OTA system caused a 9-fold increase in MF, while a 6–10-fold increase in MF was observed for OTA in the presence of RLM. The OTHQ metabolite is also mutagenic, especially in the presence of cysteine, in which a 6-fold increase in MF was observed. Our data provide further insight into OTA bioactivation that may account for its in vivo mutagenicity in male rat kidney. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ochratoxins 2011-2012)
Open AccessArticle Influence of Mycotoxins and a Mycotoxin Adsorbing Agent on the Oral Bioavailability of Commonly Used Antibiotics in Pigs
Toxins 2012, 4(4), 281-295; doi:10.3390/toxins4040281
Received: 20 February 2012 / Revised: 15 March 2012 / Accepted: 18 April 2012 / Published: 24 April 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (320 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is recognized that mycotoxins can cause a variety of adverse health effects in animals, including altered gastrointestinal barrier function. It is the aim of the present study to determine whether mycotoxin-contaminated diets can alter the oral bioavailability of the antibiotics doxycycline [...] Read more.
It is recognized that mycotoxins can cause a variety of adverse health effects in animals, including altered gastrointestinal barrier function. It is the aim of the present study to determine whether mycotoxin-contaminated diets can alter the oral bioavailability of the antibiotics doxycycline and paromomycin in pigs, and whether a mycotoxin adsorbing agent included into diets interacts with those antibiotics. Experiments were conducted with pigs utilizing diets that contained blank feed, mycotoxin-contaminated feed (T-2 toxin or deoxynivalenol), mycotoxin-contaminated feed supplemented with a glucomannan mycotoxin binder, or blank feed supplemented with mycotoxin binder. Diets with T-2 toxin and binder or deoxynivalenol and binder induced increased plasma concentrations of doxycycline administered as single bolus in pigs compared to diets containing blank feed. These results suggest that complex interactions may occur between mycotoxins, mycotoxin binders, and antibiotics which could alter antibiotic bioavailability. This could have consequences for animal toxicity, withdrawal time for oral antibiotics, or public health. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Plant Insecticidal Toxins in Ecological Networks
Toxins 2012, 4(4), 228-243; doi:10.3390/toxins4040228
Received: 9 March 2012 / Revised: 21 March 2012 / Accepted: 26 March 2012 / Published: 10 April 2012
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (223 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Plant secondary metabolites play a key role in plant-insect interactions, whether constitutive or induced, C- or N-based. Anti-herbivore defences against insects can act as repellents, deterrents, growth inhibitors or cause direct mortality. In turn, insects have evolved a variety of strategies to [...] Read more.
Plant secondary metabolites play a key role in plant-insect interactions, whether constitutive or induced, C- or N-based. Anti-herbivore defences against insects can act as repellents, deterrents, growth inhibitors or cause direct mortality. In turn, insects have evolved a variety of strategies to act against plant toxins, e.g., avoidance, excretion, sequestration and degradation of the toxin, eventually leading to a co-evolutionary arms race between insects and plants and to co-diversification. Anti-herbivore defences also negatively impact mutualistic partners, possibly leading to an ecological cost of toxin production. However, in other cases toxins can also be used by plants involved in mutualistic interactions to exclude inadequate partners and to modify the cost/benefit ratio of mutualism to their advantage. When considering the whole community, toxins have an effect at many trophic levels. Aposematic insects sequester toxins to defend themselves against predators. Depending on the ecological context, toxins can either increase insects’ vulnerability to parasitoids and entomopathogens or protect them, eventually leading to self-medication. We conclude that studying the community-level impacts of plant toxins can provide new insights into the synthesis between community and evolutionary ecology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Insecticidal Toxins)
Open AccessReview Immunochemical Methods for Ochratoxin A Detection: A Review
Toxins 2012, 4(4), 244-266; doi:10.3390/toxins4040244
Received: 28 February 2012 / Revised: 30 March 2012 / Accepted: 5 April 2012 / Published: 13 April 2012
Cited by 35 | PDF Full-text (238 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The safety of food and feed depends to a great deal on quality control. Numerous compounds and organisms may contaminate food and feed commodities and thus pose a health risk for consumers. The compound of interest in this review is ochratoxin A [...] Read more.
The safety of food and feed depends to a great deal on quality control. Numerous compounds and organisms may contaminate food and feed commodities and thus pose a health risk for consumers. The compound of interest in this review is ochratoxin A (OTA), a secondary metabolite of the fungi Aspergillus and Penicillium. Due to its adverse health effects, detection and quantification are of utmost importance. Quality control of food and feed requires extraction and analysis, including TLC, HPLC, MS, and immunochemical methods. Each of these methods has its advantages and disadvantages. However, with regard to costs and rapidity, immunochemical methods have gained much interest in the last decade. In this review an introduction to immunochemistry and assay design will be given to elucidate the principles. Further, the application of the various formats to the detection and quantification of ochratoxin will be described, including the use of commercially available kits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ochratoxins 2011-2012)

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