Next Article in Journal
Effects of Two Varieties of Bacillus thuringiensis Maize on the Biology of Plodia interpunctella
Next Article in Special Issue
Comparative Immunohistochemical Analysis of Ochratoxin A Tumourigenesis in Rats and Urinary Tract Carcinoma in Humans; Mechanistic Significance of p-S6 Ribosomal Protein Expression
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Dimethylarginine Dimethylaminohydrolase/Nitric Oxide Synthase Pathway in Liver and Kidney: Protective Effect of Cyanidin 3-O-β-D-Glucoside on Ochratoxin-A Toxicity
Toxins 2012, 4(5), 364-372; doi:10.3390/toxins4050364

Control of Ochratoxin A Production in Grapes

1 Departamento de Microbiología e Inmunología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físico, Químicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Ruta Nacional 601, (5800) Río Cuarto, Córdoba, Argentina 2 Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA), Luján de Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 February 2012 / Revised: 24 April 2012 / Accepted: 25 April 2012 / Published: 14 May 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ochratoxins 2011-2012)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [166 KB, uploaded 14 May 2012]


Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin commonly present in cereals, grapes, coffee, spices, and cocoa. Even though the main objective of the food and feed chain processors and distributors is to avoid the extended contamination of plant-derived foods and animal feeds with mycotoxins, until now, complete OTA removal from foods and feedstuffs is not feasible. Prevention through pre-harvest management is the best method for controlling mycotoxin contamination. However, in the case that the contamination occurs after this stage, the hazards associated with OTA must be managed through post-harvest strategies. Due to the increasing number of fungal strains resistant to chemical fungicides and the impact of these pesticides on the environment and human health, maximum levels of chemical residues have been regulated in many products. Alternative methods are necessary to substitute or complement treatments with fungicides to control fungi under field or storage conditions. Yeasts are considered one of the most potent biocontrol agents due to their biology and non-toxic properties. Epiphytic yeasts are the major component of the microbial community on the surface of grape berries and they are evolutionarily adapted to this ecological niche. Nowadays, several yeast species included in different genera are considered as potential biocontrol agents to control both, growth of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus species and OTA accumulation.
Keywords: Ochratoxin A; prevention strategies; fungicides; biological control Ochratoxin A; prevention strategies; fungicides; biological control
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
MDPI and ACS Style

Ponsone, M.L.; Chiotta, M.L.; Palazzini, J.M.; Combina, M.; Chulze, S. Control of Ochratoxin A Production in Grapes. Toxins 2012, 4, 364-372.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert