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Toxins 2017, 9(5), 166; doi:10.3390/toxins9050166

Tetrodotoxin-Producing Bacteria: Detection, Distribution and Migration of the Toxin in Aquatic Systems

1
National Scientific Center of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok 690041, Russia
2
School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok 690090, Russia
3
School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok 690090, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luis M. Botana
Received: 3 April 2017 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 12 May 2017 / Published: 17 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
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Abstract

This review is devoted to the marine bacterial producers of tetrodotoxin (TTX), a potent non-protein neuroparalytic toxin. In addition to the issues of the ecology and distribution of TTX-producing bacteria, this review examines issues relating to toxin migration from bacteria to TTX-bearing animals. It is shown that the mechanism of TTX extraction from toxin-producing bacteria to the environment occur through cell death, passive/active toxin excretion, or spore germination of spore-forming bacteria. Data on TTX microdistribution in toxic organs of TTX-bearing animals indicate toxin migration from the digestive system to target organs through the transport system of the organism. The role of symbiotic microflora in animal toxicity is also discussed: despite low toxin production by bacterial strains in laboratory conditions, even minimal amounts of TTX produced by intestinal microflora of an animal can contribute to its toxicity. Special attention is paid to methods of TTX detection applicable to bacteria. Due to the complexity of toxin detection in TTX-producing bacteria, it is necessary to use several methods based on different methodological approaches. Issues crucial for further progress in detecting natural sources of TTX investigation are also considered. View Full-Text
Keywords: tetrodotoxin; TTX; TTX-producing bacteria; detection; distribution; origin tetrodotoxin; TTX; TTX-producing bacteria; detection; distribution; origin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Magarlamov, T.Y.; Melnikova, D.I.; Chernyshev, A.V. Tetrodotoxin-Producing Bacteria: Detection, Distribution and Migration of the Toxin in Aquatic Systems. Toxins 2017, 9, 166.

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