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Toxins 2017, 9(7), 215; doi:10.3390/toxins9070215

Evaluation of Cyanea capillata Sting Management Protocols Using Ex Vivo and In Vitro Envenomation Models

1
Discipline of Zoology, School of Natural Sciences, Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway H91 W5P7, Ireland
2
Department of Tropical Medicine, Medical Microbiology and Pharmacology, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA
3
Békésy Laboratory of Neurobiology, Pacific Biosciences Research Center, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Bryan Grieg Fry
Received: 2 June 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 3 July 2017 / Published: 7 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5645 KB, uploaded 25 July 2017]   |  

Abstract

Lion’s mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata) stings cause severe pain and can lead to dangerous systemic effects, including Irukandji-like syndrome. As is the case for most cnidarian stings, recommended medical protocols in response to such stings lack rigorous scientific support. In this study, we sought to evaluate potential first aid care protocols using previously described envenomation models that allow for direct measurements of venom activity. We found that seawater rinsing, the most commonly recommended method of tentacle removal for this species, induced significant increases in venom delivery, while rinsing with vinegar or Sting No More® Spray did not. Post-sting temperature treatments affected sting severity, with 40 min of hot-pack treatment reducing lysis of sheep’s blood (in agar plates), a direct representation of venom load, by over 90%. Ice pack treatment had no effect on sting severity. These results indicate that sting management protocols for Cyanea need to be revised immediately to discontinue rinsing with seawater and include the use of heat treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: Scyphozoa; cnidarian envenomations; first aid; hair jelly Scyphozoa; cnidarian envenomations; first aid; hair jelly
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MDPI and ACS Style

Doyle, T.K.; Headlam, J.L.; Wilcox, C.L.; MacLoughlin, E.; Yanagihara, A.A. Evaluation of Cyanea capillata Sting Management Protocols Using Ex Vivo and In Vitro Envenomation Models. Toxins 2017, 9, 215.

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