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Cancers, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2010), Pages 1-208

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Number of Axillary Lymph Node Metastases Determined by Preoperative Ultrasound is Related to Prognosis in Patients with Breast Cancer
Cancers 2010, 2(1), 20-31; doi:10.3390/cancers2010020
Received: 18 December 2009 / Revised: 5 January 2010 / Accepted: 3 February 2010 / Published: 4 February 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (366 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objective: To analyze the impact on prognosis of the number of axillary lymph node metastases (LNM) detected by ultrasound (US) in patients with breast cancer. Methods: One-to-one comparison of LNM was performed between the ultrasound and histologic diagnosis in 380 patients. Results: [...] Read more.
Objective: To analyze the impact on prognosis of the number of axillary lymph node metastases (LNM) detected by ultrasound (US) in patients with breast cancer. Methods: One-to-one comparison of LNM was performed between the ultrasound and histologic diagnosis in 380 patients. Results: The accuracy of preoperative ultrasound diagnosis was 79.7%. According to the subdivision of number of LNM (0, 1–3, 4–9, 10+), the accuracy rates associated with LNM were 82%, 49%, 34%, and 86%, respectively. The disease-free-survival curves according to the number of LNM were similar in them. Conclusion: Preoperative ultrasound can determine axillary involvement and may be useful for predicting prognosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breast Cancer)
Open AccessArticle Regional Therapy for Recurrent Metastatic Melanoma Confined to the Extremity: Hyperthermic Isolated Limb Perfusion vs. Isolated Limb Infusion
Cancers 2010, 2(1), 43-50; doi:10.3390/cancers20100043
Received: 14 January 2010 / Revised: 9 February 2010 / Accepted: 9 February 2010 / Published: 10 February 2010
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Abstract
Melanoma patients with recurrent disease confined to an extremity can be offered one of two regional therapies that both give high complete response rates. Isolated limb infusion (ILI) is a newer technique performed with catheters and tourniquets that has a reduced potential [...] Read more.
Melanoma patients with recurrent disease confined to an extremity can be offered one of two regional therapies that both give high complete response rates. Isolated limb infusion (ILI) is a newer technique performed with catheters and tourniquets that has a reduced potential morbidity, decreased efficacy and does not treat the regional nodal basin. Hyperthermic Isolated Limb Perfusion (HILP) is an open surgical technique that includes removal of the regional nodal basin as part of the surgical procedure. An analysis was performed of the rates of regional nodal disease in this patient population to determine the percentage of patients with stage III metastatic disease to the lymph nodes that would be under treated with the ILI technique. A total of 229 patients underwent a HILP for melanoma with regional lymph node dissection as is our standard between July 1987 and December 2009. Ninty-two of the 229 patients (40%) had metastatic regional nodal disease documented at the time of the HILP procedure. HILP is the only technique that addresses all micrometastatic disease on the extremity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Concepts in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cutaneous Melanoma)
Open AccessArticle Nutrients and Risk of Colon Cancer
Cancers 2010, 2(1), 51-67; doi:10.3390/cancers2010051
Received: 2 December 2009 / Revised: 19 January 2010 / Accepted: 3 February 2010 / Published: 10 February 2010
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Abstract
Dietary fats are thought to be important in the etiology of colon cancer. However, the evidence linking them is inconclusive. Studies on dietary protein, cholesterol and carbohydrate and the risk of colon cancer are also inconsistent. This study examined the association between [...] Read more.
Dietary fats are thought to be important in the etiology of colon cancer. However, the evidence linking them is inconclusive. Studies on dietary protein, cholesterol and carbohydrate and the risk of colon cancer are also inconsistent. This study examined the association between dietary intake of protein, fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates, and the risk of colon cancer. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 1731 individuals with histologically confirmed cases of colon cancer and 3097 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in seven Canadian provinces. Measurements included socio-economic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire was used to provide data on eating habits from two years before the study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using unconditional logistic regression. The nutrients were categorized by quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. Intake of polyunsaturated fat, trans-fat and cholesterol were significantly associated with the risk of colon cancer; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.02–1.80), 1.37 (95% CI, 1.10–1.71) and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.84), respectively. The association was stronger with proximal colon cancer (PCC). An increased risk was also observed with increasing intake of sucrose for both proximal and distal colon cancers; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.67 (95% CI, 1.22–2.29) for PCC and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.18–2.10) for distal colon cancer (DCC). An elevated risk of PCC was also found with increased lactose intake. Our findings provide evidence that a diet low in fat and sucrose could reduce the risk of various colon cancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiologic Research and Cancer)
Open AccessArticle Superoxide Enhances the Antitumor Combination of AdMnSOD Plus BCNU in Breast Cancer
Cancers 2010, 2(1), 68-87; doi:10.3390/cancers2010068
Received: 21 December 2009 / Revised: 9 February 2010 / Accepted: 10 February 2010 / Published: 12 February 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (729 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) can sensitize a variety of cancer cell lines to many anticancer drugs. Recent work has shown that cancer cells can be sensitized to cell killing by raising peroxide levels through increased manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) when [...] Read more.
Overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) can sensitize a variety of cancer cell lines to many anticancer drugs. Recent work has shown that cancer cells can be sensitized to cell killing by raising peroxide levels through increased manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) when combined with inhibition of peroxide removal. Here we utilize the mechanistic property of one such anticancer drug, BCNU, which inhibits glutathione reductase (GR), compromising the glutathione peroxidase system thereby inhibiting peroxide removal. The purpose of this study was to determine if anticancer modalities known to produce superoxide radicals can increase the antitumor effect of MnSOD overexpression when combined with BCNU. To enhance MnSOD, an adenoviral construct containing the cDNA for MnSOD (AdMnSOD) was introduced into human breast cancer cell line, ZR-75-1. AdMnSOD infection alone did not alter cell killing, however when GR was inhibited with either BCNU or siRNA, cytotoxicity increased. Futhermore, when the AdMnSOD + BCNU treatment was combined with agents that enhance steady-state levels of superoxide (TNF-α, antimycin, adriamycin, photosensitizers, and ionizing radiation), both cell cytotoxicity and intracellular peroxide levels increased. These results suggest that the anticancer effect of AdMnSOD combined with BCNU can be enhanced by agents that increase generation of superoxide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Cancer)
Open AccessArticle Overexpression of Periostin and Lumican in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Cancers 2010, 2(1), 133-142; doi:10.3390/cancers2010133
Received: 27 January 2010 / Revised: 8 February 2010 / Accepted: 20 February 2010 / Published: 1 March 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (337 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To identify biomarkers for early detection for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we previously carried out a genome-wide gene expression profiling study using an oligonucleotide microarray platform. This analysis led to identification of several transcripts that were significantly upregulated in ESCC compared [...] Read more.
To identify biomarkers for early detection for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we previously carried out a genome-wide gene expression profiling study using an oligonucleotide microarray platform. This analysis led to identification of several transcripts that were significantly upregulated in ESCC compared to the adjacent normal epithelium. In the current study, we performed immunohistochemical analyses of protein products for two candidates genes identified from the DNA microarray analysis, periostin (POSTN) and lumican (LUM), using tissue microarrays. Increased expression of both periostin and lumican was observed in 100% of 137 different ESCC samples arrayed on tissue microarrays. Increased expression of periostin and lumican was observed in carcinoma as well as in stromal cell in the large majority of cases. These findings suggest that these candidates can be investigated in the sera of ESCC patients using ELISA or multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) type assays to further explore their utility as biomarkers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers: Oncology Studies)
Figures

Open AccessArticle What Is Inflammatory Breast Cancer? Revisiting the Case Definition
Cancers 2010, 2(1), 143-152; doi:10.3390/cancers2010143
Received: 14 December 2009 / Revised: 10 February 2010 / Accepted: 1 March 2010 / Published: 3 March 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (122 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The case definition for inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is controversial. The American Joint Committee on Cancer defines IBC as redness, warmth and edema involving at least half the breast. The SEER program relies on a pathologic finding of dermal lymphatic invasion and [...] Read more.
The case definition for inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is controversial. The American Joint Committee on Cancer defines IBC as redness, warmth and edema involving at least half the breast. The SEER program relies on a pathologic finding of dermal lymphatic invasion and recently added those with clinical involvement of more than 3/4 of the breast. We established a registry to collect information and specimens from IBC patients to clarify the epidemiology and biology of these tumors. The goals of this report are to suggest improvements regarding case definitions and provide data on the variety of presentations relevant to early diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiologic Research and Cancer)
Open AccessArticle Increased Level of Phosphorylated ShcA Measured by Chemiluminescence-Linked Immunoassay Is a Predictor of Good Prognosis in Primary Breast Cancer Expressing Low Levels of Estrogen Receptor
Cancers 2010, 2(1), 153-164; doi:10.3390/cancers2010153
Received: 25 January 2010 / Revised: 23 February 2010 / Accepted: 5 March 2010 / Published: 12 March 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (171 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The SH2 domain-containing adaptor protein ShcA is a proto-oncogene involved in growth factor receptor signaling. The role of phosphorylated ShcA is to link receptor tyrosine kinases with the SH2-containing adaptor protein Grb2, thus facilitating signal transduction from receptor tyrosine kinases to Ras, leading to MAPK activation. The present study was designed to investigate the prognostic significance of phosphorylated ShcA in primary breast cancer and its association in the interactions between the ER and ErbB2 pathways. Using a two-site chemiluminescence-linked immunosorbent assay, we detected the quantitative expression levels of total tyrosine- and threonine-phosphorylated ShcA in cytosol fractions obtained from fresh frozen tissue samples of 153 selected primary breast cancer patients. ShcA phosphorylation was not associated with nodal status, estrogen receptor (ER) status or grading. High levels of both tyrosine (pYShcA) and serine (pSShcA) phosphorylated ShcA correlated with good prognosis (p < 0.01), with respect to both disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS). In addition, pShcA levels were found to correlate with threonine-phosphorylated ErbB2 and inversely with phosphorylated Akt (pAkt), as well as ErbB2 and ER expression levels. Our findings demonstrate that ShcA activation in primary breast cancer patients correlates with low levels of ER, and is associated with good prognosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breast Cancer)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Novel Combinations for the Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer
Cancers 2010, 2(1), 1-19; doi:10.3390/cancers2010001
Received: 17 November 2009 / Revised: 29 December 2009 / Accepted: 5 January 2010 / Published: 14 January 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (526 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Anthracyclines and taxanes represent the mainstay of first-line cytotoxic therapy for metastatic breast cancer (MBC), but most patients eventually develop resistance to these agents. Consequently, alternative combinations for MBC therapy are the subject of much ongoing research. Capecitabine and ixabepilone is the [...] Read more.
Anthracyclines and taxanes represent the mainstay of first-line cytotoxic therapy for metastatic breast cancer (MBC), but most patients eventually develop resistance to these agents. Consequently, alternative combinations for MBC therapy are the subject of much ongoing research. Capecitabine and ixabepilone is the only chemotherapy combination specifically approved for MBC after failure of anthracyclines and taxanes. Other options have limited data to support their use in this setting but are commonly used in practice. Future MBC therapies will likely combine alternative chemotherapies and novel biologic agents, and numerous ongoing trials should help to further define the proper use of these regimens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breast Cancer)
Open AccessReview Oxidative Stress and Exhaled Breath Analysis: A Promising Tool for Detection of Lung Cancer
Cancers 2010, 2(1), 32-42; doi:10.3390/cancers2010032
Received: 10 December 2009 / Revised: 29 January 2010 / Accepted: 1 February 2010 / Published: 8 February 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lung cancer is one of the few neoplasia in which the principal aetiology is known, with cigarette smoke donating a considerable oxidative burden to the lungs. This may be part of the aetiology of lung cancer, but the neoplastic process is also [...] Read more.
Lung cancer is one of the few neoplasia in which the principal aetiology is known, with cigarette smoke donating a considerable oxidative burden to the lungs. This may be part of the aetiology of lung cancer, but the neoplastic process is also associated with increased oxidative stress. Nonetheless, it is difficult to study the mechanisms behind the induction of lung cancer in smokers, but newer techniques of breath analysis targeting markers of oxidative stress and anti-oxidant capacity show promise in unravelling some of the pathways. This review highlights recent developments in the assessment of oxidative stress by non-invasive methods of breath analysis which are becoming powerful research techniques with possible clinical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Cancer)
Open AccessReview Targeted Therapies in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer
Cancers 2010, 2(1), 88-113; doi:10.3390/cancers2010088
Received: 18 January 2010 / Revised: 2 February 2010 / Accepted: 11 February 2010 / Published: 23 February 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (177 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Molecularly targeted therapy is relatively new to ovarian cancer despite the unquestionable success with these agents in other solid tumours such as breast and colorectal cancer. Advanced ovarian cancer is chemosensitive and patients can survive several years on treatment. However chemotherapy diminishes [...] Read more.
Molecularly targeted therapy is relatively new to ovarian cancer despite the unquestionable success with these agents in other solid tumours such as breast and colorectal cancer. Advanced ovarian cancer is chemosensitive and patients can survive several years on treatment. However chemotherapy diminishes in efficacy over time whilst toxicities persist. Newer biological agents that target explicit molecular pathways and lack specific chemotherapy toxicities such as myelosuppression offer the advantage of long-term therapy with a manageable toxicity profile enabling patients to enjoy a good quality of life. In this review we appraise the emerging data on novel targeted therapies in ovarian cancer. We discuss the role of these compounds in the front-line treatment of ovarian cancer and in relapsed disease; and describe how the development of predictive clinical, molecular and imaging biomarkers will define the role of biological agents in the treatment of ovarian cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers: Oncology Studies)
Open AccessReview Angiogenesis and Melanoma
Cancers 2010, 2(1), 114-132; doi:10.3390/cancers2010114
Received: 11 January 2010 / Revised: 10 February 2010 / Accepted: 24 February 2010 / Published: 25 February 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (476 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Angiogenesis occurs in pathological conditions, such as tumors, where a specific critical point in tumor progression is the transition from the avascular to the vascular phase. Tumor angiogenesis depends mainly on the release by neoplastic cells of growth factors specific for endothelial [...] Read more.
Angiogenesis occurs in pathological conditions, such as tumors, where a specific critical point in tumor progression is the transition from the avascular to the vascular phase. Tumor angiogenesis depends mainly on the release by neoplastic cells of growth factors specific for endothelial cells, which are able to stimulate the growth of the host’s blood vessels. This article summarizes the literature concerning the relationship between angiogenesis and human melanoma progression. The recent applications of antiangiogenic agents which interfere with melanoma progression are also described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Concepts in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cutaneous Melanoma)
Open AccessReview Biology of Human Cutaneous Melanoma
Cancers 2010, 2(1), 165-189; doi:10.3390/cancers2010165
Received: 28 January 2010 / Revised: 4 March 2010 / Accepted: 9 March 2010 / Published: 12 March 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (417 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A review of the natural behavior of cutaneous melanoma, clinical and pathological factors, prognostic indicators, some basic research and the present and possible futuristic strategies in the management of this disease are presented. While surgery remains to be the most effective therapeutic [...] Read more.
A review of the natural behavior of cutaneous melanoma, clinical and pathological factors, prognostic indicators, some basic research and the present and possible futuristic strategies in the management of this disease are presented. While surgery remains to be the most effective therapeutic approach in the management of early primary lesions, there is no standard adjuvant therapy after surgical resection, or for metastatic disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Concepts in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cutaneous Melanoma)
Open AccessReview Cancer Biomarkers: Are We Ready for the Prime Time?
Cancers 2010, 2(1), 190-208; doi:10.3390/cancers2010190
Received: 20 February 2010 / Revised: 2 March 2010 / Accepted: 19 March 2010 / Published: 22 March 2010
Cited by 40 | PDF Full-text (202 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A biomarker is a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. In cancer, a biomarker refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the [...] Read more.
A biomarker is a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention. In cancer, a biomarker refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker might be either a molecule secreted by a tumor or it can be a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer. Genetic, epigenetic, proteomic, glycomic, and imaging biomarkers can be used for cancer diagnosis, prognosis and epidemiology. These markers can be assayed in non-invasively collected biofluids. However, few cancer biomarkers are highly sensitive and specific for cancer detection at the present time. Consequently, biomarkers are not yet ready for routine use due to challenges in their clinical validation for early disease detection, diagnosis and monitoring to improve long-term survival of patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers: Oncology Studies)

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