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Sputum-Based Molecular Biomarkers for the Early Detection of Lung Cancer: Limitations and Promise
Cancers 2011, 3(4), 4258-4268; doi:10.3390/cancers3044258
Review

NF-kappaB in Lung Tumorigenesis

1
,
1,2
 and
1,2,*
1 Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 462 First Avenue, NBV 7N24, New York, NY 10016, USA 2 Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Road, Tuxedo, NY 10987, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 October 2011 / Revised: 29 November 2011 / Accepted: 6 December 2011 / Published: 14 December 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lung Cancer)
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Abstract

The development of lung cancer in humans can be divided into three steps: initiation, promotion and progression. This process is driven by alterations in related signal transduction pathways. These pathways signal the aberrant activation of NF-kappaB, a transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes important for lung tumorigenesis. Our current knowledge about the role of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway in the development of lung cancer has been bolstered by animal models demonstrating the connection between K-ras and tobacco induced lung transformation with NF-kappaB. Activation of downstream genes leads to cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, angiogenesis, inflammation, invasion, and metastasis.
Keywords: NF-kappaB; lung cancer; tumorigenesis; tumor initiation; tumor promotion; tumor progression NF-kappaB; lung cancer; tumorigenesis; tumor initiation; tumor promotion; tumor progression
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Cai, Z.; Tchou-Wong, K.-M.; Rom, W.N. NF-kappaB in Lung Tumorigenesis. Cancers 2011, 3, 4258-4268.

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