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Polymers 2017, 9(11), 615; doi:10.3390/polym9110615

Effect of Ammonium Polyphosphate to Aluminum Hydroxide Mass Ratio on the Properties of Wood-Flour/Polypropylene Composites

1,2,3
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1,2,4
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3
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1,2
and
1,2,*
1
Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Wood Material Science and Utilization, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
2
Beijing Key Laboratory of Wood Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
3
Fire Research Division, Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA
4
Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto, Ontario, ON M5S 3B3, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 8 November 2017 / Accepted: 12 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
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Abstract

Two halogen-free inorganic flame retardants, ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and aluminum hydroxide (ATH) were added to wood-flour/polypropylene composites (WPCs) at different APP to ATH mass ratios (APP/ATH ratios), with a constant total loading of 30 wt % (30% by mass). Water soaking tests indicated a low hygroscopicity and/or solubility of ATH as compared to APP. Mechanical property tests showed that the flexural properties were not significantly affected by the APP/ATH ratio, while the impact strength appeared to increase with the increasing ATH/APP ratio. Cone calorimetry indicated that APP appeared to be more effective than ATH in reducing the peak of heat release rate (PHRR). However, when compared to the neat WPCs, total smoke release decreased with the addition of ATH but increased with the addition of APP. Noticeably, WPCs containing the combination of 20 wt % APP and 10 wt % ATH (WPC/APP-20/ATH-10) showed the lowest PHRR and total heat release in all of the formulations. WPCs combustion residues were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, laser Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Thermogravimetric analysis coupled with FTIR spectroscopy was used to identify the organic volatiles that were produced during the thermal decomposition of WPCs. WPC/APP-20/ATH-10 showed the most compact carbonaceous residue with the highest degree of graphitization. View Full-Text
Keywords: wood-plastic composite; ammonium polypropylene; aluminum hydroxide; physical-mechanical property; fire performance; smoke generation; degree of graphitization wood-plastic composite; ammonium polypropylene; aluminum hydroxide; physical-mechanical property; fire performance; smoke generation; degree of graphitization
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Wang, W.; Peng, Y.; Zammarano, M.; Zhang, W.; Li, J. Effect of Ammonium Polyphosphate to Aluminum Hydroxide Mass Ratio on the Properties of Wood-Flour/Polypropylene Composites. Polymers 2017, 9, 615.

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