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Cells 2012, 1(4), 1156-1167; doi:10.3390/cells1041156

Apoptotic Volume Decrease (AVD) Is Independent of Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Initiator Caspase Activation

1 Department of Cell Physiology, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, Okazaki 444-8585, Japan 2 Laboratory of Immunology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Graduate School of Biomedical Science, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 November 2012 / Revised: 24 November 2012 / Accepted: 27 November 2012 / Published: 5 December 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Apoptosis)
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Persistent cell shrinkage is a major hallmark of apoptotic cell death. The early-phase shrinkage, which starts within 30−120 min after apoptotic stimulation and is called apoptotic volume decrease (AVD), is known to be accomplished by activation of K+ channels and volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR) Cl channels in a manner independent of caspase-3 activation. However, it is controversial whether AVD depends on apoptotic dysfunction of mitochondria and activation of initiator caspases. Here, we observed that AVD is induced not only by a mitochondrial apoptosis inducer, staurosporine (STS), in mouse B lymphoma WEHI-231 cells, but also by ligation of the death receptor Fas in human B lymphoblastoid SKW6.4 cells, which undergo Fas-mediated apoptosis without involving mitochondria. Overexpression of Bcl-2 failed to inhibit the STS-induced AVD in WEHI-231 cells. These results indicate that AVD does not require the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. In human epithelial HeLa cells stimulated with anti-Fas antibody or STS, the AVD induction was found to precede activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9 and to be resistant to pan-caspase blockers. Thus, it is concluded that the AVD induction is an early event independent of the mitochondrial apoptotic signaling pathway and initiator caspase activation.
Keywords: apoptosis; AVD; mitochondria; caspase-3; caspase-8; caspase-9 apoptosis; AVD; mitochondria; caspase-3; caspase-8; caspase-9
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Maeno, E.; Tsubata, T.; Okada, Y. Apoptotic Volume Decrease (AVD) Is Independent of Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Initiator Caspase Activation. Cells 2012, 1, 1156-1167.

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