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Water 2013, 5(3), 1006-1035; doi:10.3390/w5031006
Article

Prospects of Source-Separation-Based Sanitation Concepts: A Model-Based Study

1,2,* , 2
,
1
,
2
 and
1,2
1 Wetsus, Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, P.O. Box 1113, 8900CC Leeuwarden, The Netherlands 2 Sub-Department Environmental Technology, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 17, 6700AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 April 2013 / Revised: 13 June 2013 / Accepted: 14 June 2013 / Published: 8 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Wastewater Treatment and Pollution Control)
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Abstract

Separation of different domestic wastewater streams and targeted on-site treatment for resource recovery has been recognized as one of the most promising sanitation concepts to re-establish the balance in carbon, nutrient and water cycles. In this study a model was developed based on literature data to compare energy and water balance, nutrient recovery, chemical use, effluent quality and land area requirement in four different sanitation concepts: (1) centralized; (2) centralized with source-separation of urine; (3) source-separation of black water, kitchen refuse and grey water; and (4) source-separation of urine, feces, kitchen refuse and grey water. The highest primary energy consumption of 914 MJ/capita(cap)/year was attained within the centralized sanitation concept, and the lowest primary energy consumption of 437 MJ/cap/year was attained within source-separation of urine, feces, kitchen refuse and grey water. Grey water bio-flocculation and subsequent grey water sludge co-digestion decreased the primary energy consumption, but was not energetically favorable to couple with grey water effluent reuse. Source-separation of urine improved the energy balance, nutrient recovery and effluent quality, but required larger land area and higher chemical use in the centralized concept.
Keywords: centralized sanitation; source-separation-based sanitation; energy balance; water balance; nutrient recovery; chemical use; effluent quality; land area requirement centralized sanitation; source-separation-based sanitation; energy balance; water balance; nutrient recovery; chemical use; effluent quality; land area requirement
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Tervahauta, T.; Hoang, T.; Hernández, L.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C. Prospects of Source-Separation-Based Sanitation Concepts: A Model-Based Study. Water 2013, 5, 1006-1035.

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