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Antibodies, Volume 5, Issue 3 (September 2016)

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Open AccessReview Antibody Aggregation: Insights from Sequence and Structure
Antibodies 2016, 5(3), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib5030019
Received: 12 May 2016 / Revised: 3 August 2016 / Accepted: 4 August 2016 / Published: 5 September 2016
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Abstract
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are the fastest-growing biological therapeutics with important applications ranging from cancers, autoimmunity diseases and metabolic disorders to emerging infectious diseases. Aggregation of mAbs continues to be a major problem in their developability. Antibody aggregation could be triggered by partial unfolding
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Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are the fastest-growing biological therapeutics with important applications ranging from cancers, autoimmunity diseases and metabolic disorders to emerging infectious diseases. Aggregation of mAbs continues to be a major problem in their developability. Antibody aggregation could be triggered by partial unfolding of its domains, leading to monomer-monomer association followed by nucleation and growth. Although the aggregation propensities of antibodies and antibody-based proteins can be affected by the external experimental conditions, they are strongly dependent on the intrinsic antibody properties as determined by their sequences and structures. In this review, we describe how the unfolding and aggregation susceptibilities of IgG could be related to their cognate sequences and structures. The impact of antibody domain structures on thermostability and aggregation propensities, and effective strategies to reduce aggregation are discussed. Finally, the aggregation of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) as related to their sequence/structure, linker payload, conjugation chemistry and drug-antibody ratio (DAR) is reviewed. Full article
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Open AccessReview Antiphospholipid Antibodies: From General Concepts to Its Relation with Malignancies
Antibodies 2016, 5(3), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib5030018
Received: 10 May 2016 / Revised: 23 June 2016 / Accepted: 5 July 2016 / Published: 2 August 2016
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Abstract
Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an adquired autoimmune pro-thrombotic disease characterized by arterial and/or venous thrombosis and/or fetal losses associated with the persistent presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) detectable by solid phase assays (anticardiolipin (aCL) and anti-β2 glycoprotein I, β2GPI) and/or functional coagulation test
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Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an adquired autoimmune pro-thrombotic disease characterized by arterial and/or venous thrombosis and/or fetal losses associated with the persistent presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) detectable by solid phase assays (anticardiolipin (aCL) and anti-β2 glycoprotein I, β2GPI) and/or functional coagulation test (lupus anticoagulant (LA)). Most patients with typical APS manifestations have the presence of one or more of conventional aPL, but, some patients might exhibit clinical features related with APS but with persistent negative determinations of “classic” aPL (seronegative APS). Expanding the network of autoantibodies in patients highly suspected of having APS but who have normal results from a conventional test using new antibodies (i.e., phosphatidylserine/prothrombin and β2GPI domain 1) would increase the diagnosis. Thrombosis is one of the leading causes of death among patients with cancer, representing up to 15% of all deaths. Cancer increases the risk of thrombosis and chemotherapy is further associated with a higher risk of thrombosis. In addition, aPL may contribute to an increased risk of thrombosis in patients with malignancies, although the levels do not seem to reflect their pathogenicity. Several malignancies, particularly hematological and lymphoproliferative malignancies, may indeed be associated with the generation of aPL but do not necessarily enhance the thrombophilic risk in these patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Syndrome) Printed Edition available
Open AccessReview Antiphospholipid Syndrome and Kidney Involvement: New Insights
Antibodies 2016, 5(3), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/antib5030017
Received: 18 May 2016 / Revised: 1 July 2016 / Accepted: 1 July 2016 / Published: 11 July 2016
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Abstract
Antiphospholipid syndrome is an autoimmune disorder characterized by vascular thromboses and pregnancy morbidity associated with antiphospholipid antibodies: lupus anticoagulant, IgG or IgM anticardiolipin or anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I. The kidney is one of the major target organs in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). However, beyond the
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Antiphospholipid syndrome is an autoimmune disorder characterized by vascular thromboses and pregnancy morbidity associated with antiphospholipid antibodies: lupus anticoagulant, IgG or IgM anticardiolipin or anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I. The kidney is one of the major target organs in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). However, beyond the known involvement of the kidney in primary and associated APS, we may be observing a new form of APS within the context of renal failure. This review describes the classical kidney manifestations of APS and provides new considerations to be taken into account. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Syndrome) Printed Edition available
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