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Antibodies, Volume 6, Issue 3 (September 2017)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Potential Roles of Antiphospholipid Antibodies in Generating Platelet-C4d in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Antibodies 2017, 6(3), 9; doi:10.3390/antib6030009
Received: 26 December 2016 / Revised: 12 May 2017 / Accepted: 21 June 2017 / Published: 2 July 2017
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Abstract
Premature, accelerated onset of atherothrombotic disease is prevalent in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Most, if not all, atherothrombotic diseases are likely to involve platelets and complement. Previously, we discovered that platelets bearing complement activation product C4d (P-C4d) are present in SLE
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Premature, accelerated onset of atherothrombotic disease is prevalent in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Most, if not all, atherothrombotic diseases are likely to involve platelets and complement. Previously, we discovered that platelets bearing complement activation product C4d (P-C4d) are present in SLE patients, and are significantly associated with antiphospholipid (aPL) antibody positivity and stroke in SLE patients. The goal of the present study was to further elucidate the role of aPL and other platelet-reactive autoantibodies in the generation of P-C4d. To determine the association between P-C4d and aPL antibodies, the serum levels of aPL antibodies and P-C4d of 180 SLE patients were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassays and flow cytometry, respectively. To investigate the role of aPL antibodies, and possibly other autoantibodies as well, in mediating the generation of P-C4d, in vitro 2-step P-C4d induction experiments were performed. The results showed that the presence and levels of aPL antibodies in the serum were specifically elevated in SLE patients with positive P-C4d. The plasma and immunoglobulins purified from SLE patients who were positive for P-C4d and aPL were capable of inducing C4d deposition on normal platelets in vitro. The capacity of SLE plasma in inducing P-C4d appeared to correlate proportionately to the serum aPL levels. Collectively, the results demonstrate that both aPL and other platelet-reactive autoantibodies may participate in mediating the generation of P-C4d in SLE patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Syndrome)
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Open AccessArticle Monoclonal Antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum Circumsporozoite Protein
Antibodies 2017, 6(3), 11; doi:10.3390/antib6030011
Received: 10 May 2017 / Revised: 14 June 2017 / Accepted: 1 August 2017 / Published: 23 August 2017
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Abstract
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by the parasite Plasmodium spp. Malaria continues to have a devastating impact on human health. Sporozoites are the infective forms of the parasite inside mosquito salivary glands. Circumsporozoite protein (CSP) is a major and immunodominant protective
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Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by the parasite Plasmodium spp. Malaria continues to have a devastating impact on human health. Sporozoites are the infective forms of the parasite inside mosquito salivary glands. Circumsporozoite protein (CSP) is a major and immunodominant protective antigen on the surface of Plasmodium sporozoites. Here, we report a generation of specific monoclonal antibodies that recognize the central repeat and C-terminal regions of P. falciparum CSP. The monoclonal antibodies 3C1, 3C2, and 3D3—specific for the central repeat region—have higher titers and protective efficacies against challenge with sporozoites compared with 2A10, a gold standard monoclonal antibody that was generated in early 1980s. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monoclonal Antibodies)
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Open AccessArticle Functional, Biophysical, and Structural Characterization of Human IgG1 and IgG4 Fc Variants with Ablated Immune Functionality
Antibodies 2017, 6(3), 12; doi:10.3390/antib6030012
Received: 19 July 2017 / Revised: 20 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
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Abstract
Engineering of fragment crystallizable (Fc) domains of therapeutic immunoglobulin (IgG) antibodies to eliminate their immune effector functions while retaining other Fc characteristics has numerous applications, including blocking antigens on Fc gamma (Fcγ) receptor-expressing immune cells. We previously reported on a human IgG2 variant
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Engineering of fragment crystallizable (Fc) domains of therapeutic immunoglobulin (IgG) antibodies to eliminate their immune effector functions while retaining other Fc characteristics has numerous applications, including blocking antigens on Fc gamma (Fcγ) receptor-expressing immune cells. We previously reported on a human IgG2 variant termed IgG2σ with barely detectable activity in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, phagocytosis, complement activity, and Fcγ receptor binding assays. Here, we extend that work to IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies, alternative subtypes which may offer advantages over IgG2 antibodies. In several in vitro and in vivo assays, the IgG1σ and IgG4σ variants showed equal or even lower Fc-related activities than the corresponding IgG2σ variant. In particular, IgG1σ and IgG4σ variants demonstrate complete lack of effector function as measured by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, complement-dependent cytotoxicity, antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis, and in vivo T-cell activation. The IgG1σ and IgG4σ variants showed acceptable solubility and stability, and typical human IgG1 pharmacokinetic profiles in human FcRn-transgenic mice and cynomolgus monkeys. In silico T-cell epitope analyses predict a lack of immunogenicity in humans. Finally, crystal structures and simulations of the IgG1σ and IgG4σ Fc domains can explain the lack of Fc-mediated immune functions. These variants show promise for use in those therapeutic antibodies and Fc fusions for which the Fc domain should be immunologically “silent”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monoclonal Antibodies)
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Open AccessArticle Host Cell Proteins in Biologics Manufacturing: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly
Antibodies 2017, 6(3), 13; doi:10.3390/antib6030013
Received: 17 August 2017 / Revised: 8 September 2017 / Accepted: 10 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
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Abstract
Significant progress in the manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals has been made by increasing the overall titers in the USP (upstream processing) titers without raising the cost of the USP. In addition, the development of platform processes led to a higher process robustness. Despite or
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Significant progress in the manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals has been made by increasing the overall titers in the USP (upstream processing) titers without raising the cost of the USP. In addition, the development of platform processes led to a higher process robustness. Despite or even due to those achievements, novel challenges are in sight. The higher upstream titers created more complex impurity profiles, both in mass and composition, demanding higher separation capacities and selectivity in downstream processing (DSP). This creates a major shift of costs from USP to DSP. In order to solve this issue, USP and DSP integration approaches can be developed and used for overall process optimization. This study focuses on the characterization and classification of host cell proteins (HCPs) in each unit operation of the DSP (i.e., aqueous two-phase extraction, integrated countercurrent chromatography). The results create a data-driven feedback to the USP, which will serve for media and process optimizations in order to reduce, or even eliminate nascent critical HCPs. This will improve separation efficiency and may lead to a quantitative process understanding. Different HCP species were classified by stringent criteria with regard to DSP separation parameters into “The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly” in terms of pI and MW using 2D-PAGE analysis depending on their positions on the gels. Those spots were identified using LC-MS/MS analysis. HCPs, which are especially difficult to remove and persistent throughout the DSP (i.e., “Bad” or “Ugly”), have to be evaluated by their ability to be separated. In this approach, HCPs, considered “Ugly,” represent proteins with a MW larger than 15 kDa and a pI between 7.30 and 9.30. “Bad” HCPs can likewise be classified using MW (>15 kDa) and pI (4.75–7.30 and 9.30–10.00). HCPs with a MW smaller than 15 kDa and a pI lower than 4.75 and higher than 10.00 are classified as “Good” since their physicochemical properties differ significantly from the product. In order to evaluate this classification scheme, it is of utmost importance to use orthogonal analytical methods such as IEX, HIC, and SEC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monoclonal Antibodies)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Strategies for Selecting Membrane Protein-Specific Antibodies using Phage Display with Cell-Based Panning
Antibodies 2017, 6(3), 10; doi:10.3390/antib6030010
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 July 2017 / Published: 5 August 2017
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Abstract
Membrane proteins are attractive targets for monoclonal antibody (mAb) discovery and development. Although several approved mAbs against membrane proteins have been isolated from phage antibody libraries, the process is challenging, as it requires the presentation of a correctly folded protein to screen the
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Membrane proteins are attractive targets for monoclonal antibody (mAb) discovery and development. Although several approved mAbs against membrane proteins have been isolated from phage antibody libraries, the process is challenging, as it requires the presentation of a correctly folded protein to screen the antibody library. Cell-based panning could represent the optimal method for antibody discovery against membrane proteins, since it allows for presentation in their natural conformation along with the appropriate post-translational modifications. Nevertheless, screening antibodies against a desired antigen, within a selected cell line, may be difficult due to the abundance of irrelevant organic molecules, which can potentially obscure the antigen of interest. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of the different cell-based phage panning strategies, with an emphasis placed on the optimisation of four critical panning conditions: cell surface antigen presentation, non-specific binding events, incubation time, and temperature and recovery of phage binders. Full article
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