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Symmetry 2017, 9(11), 276; doi:10.3390/sym9110276

Retinal Vessel Segmentation via Structure Tensor Coloring and Anisotropy Enhancement

1
Department of Computer Engineering, Dicle University, 21280 Diyarbakır, Turkey
2
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Dicle University, 21280 Diyarbakır, Turkey
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 October 2017 / Revised: 9 November 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 14 November 2017
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Abstract

Retinal vessel segmentation is one of the preliminary tasks for developing diagnosis software systems related to various retinal diseases. In this study, a fully automated vessel segmentation system is proposed. Firstly, the vessels are enhanced using a Frangi Filter. Afterwards, Structure Tensor is applied to the response of the Frangi Filter and a 4-D tensor field is obtained. After decomposing the Eigenvalues of the tensor field, the anisotropy between the principal Eigenvalues are enhanced exponentially. Furthermore, this 4-D tensor field is converted to the 3-D space which is composed of energy, anisotropy and orientation and then a Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization algorithm is applied to the energy space. Later, the obtained energy space is multiplied by the enhanced mean surface curvature of itself and the modified 3-D space is converted back to the 4-D tensor field. Lastly, the vessel segmentation is performed by using Otsu algorithm and tensor coloring method which is inspired by the ellipsoid tensor visualization technique. Finally, some post-processing techniques are applied to the segmentation result. In this study, the proposed method achieved mean sensitivity of 0.8123, 0.8126, 0.7246 and mean specificity of 0.9342, 0.9442, 0.9453 as well as mean accuracy of 0.9183, 0.9442, 0.9236 for DRIVE, STARE and CHASE_DB1 datasets, respectively. The mean execution time of this study is 6.104, 6.4525 and 18.8370 s for the aforementioned three datasets respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: retinal blood vessels; segmentation; structure tensor; Frangi vesselness filter; anisotropy enhancement; tensor visualization retinal blood vessels; segmentation; structure tensor; Frangi vesselness filter; anisotropy enhancement; tensor visualization
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Nergiz, M.; Akın, M. Retinal Vessel Segmentation via Structure Tensor Coloring and Anisotropy Enhancement. Symmetry 2017, 9, 276.

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