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J. Pers. Med. 2017, 7(2), 3; doi:10.3390/jpm7020003

Accuracy in Wrist-Worn, Sensor-Based Measurements of Heart Rate and Energy Expenditure in a Diverse Cohort

1
Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
2
Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm 114 33, Sweden
3
Center for Inherited Cardiovascular Disease, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
4
Department of Statistics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
5
Department of Biomedical Data Science, Falk Cardiovascular Research Building, Stanford University, 870 Quarry Road, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stephen B. Liggett
Received: 27 February 2017 / Revised: 24 April 2017 / Accepted: 4 May 2017 / Published: 24 May 2017
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Abstract

The ability to measure physical activity through wrist-worn devices provides an opportunity for cardiovascular medicine. However, the accuracy of commercial devices is largely unknown. The aim of this work is to assess the accuracy of seven commercially available wrist-worn devices in estimating heart rate (HR) and energy expenditure (EE) and to propose a wearable sensor evaluation framework. We evaluated the Apple Watch, Basis Peak, Fitbit Surge, Microsoft Band, Mio Alpha 2, PulseOn, and Samsung Gear S2. Participants wore devices while being simultaneously assessed with continuous telemetry and indirect calorimetry while sitting, walking, running, and cycling. Sixty volunteers (29 male, 31 female, age 38 ± 11 years) of diverse age, height, weight, skin tone, and fitness level were selected. Error in HR and EE was computed for each subject/device/activity combination. Devices reported the lowest error for cycling and the highest for walking. Device error was higher for males, greater body mass index, darker skin tone, and walking. Six of the devices achieved a median error for HR below 5% during cycling. No device achieved an error in EE below 20 percent. The Apple Watch achieved the lowest overall error in both HR and EE, while the Samsung Gear S2 reported the highest. In conclusion, most wrist-worn devices adequately measure HR in laboratory-based activities, but poorly estimate EE, suggesting caution in the use of EE measurements as part of health improvement programs. We propose reference standards for the validation of consumer health devices (http://precision.stanford.edu/). View Full-Text
Keywords: mobile health; heart rate; energy expenditure; validation; fitness trackers; activity monitors mobile health; heart rate; energy expenditure; validation; fitness trackers; activity monitors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shcherbina, A.; Mattsson, C.M.; Waggott, D.; Salisbury, H.; Christle, J.W.; Hastie, T.; Wheeler, M.T.; Ashley, E.A. Accuracy in Wrist-Worn, Sensor-Based Measurements of Heart Rate and Energy Expenditure in a Diverse Cohort. J. Pers. Med. 2017, 7, 3.

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J. Pers. Med. EISSN 2075-4426 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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