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Sports, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2014), Pages 34-58

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Acute Effects of Different Formats of Small-Sided and Conditioned Handball Games on Heart Rate Responses in Female Students During PE Classes
Sports 2014, 2(2), 51-58; doi:10.3390/sports2020051
Received: 12 February 2014 / Revised: 16 May 2014 / Accepted: 6 June 2014 / Published: 18 June 2014
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of different formats (2-a-side, 3-a-side and 4-a-side) on heart rate responses of female students during small-sided and conditioned handball games. The heart rate responses were measured using heart rate monitors during physical [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of different formats (2-a-side, 3-a-side and 4-a-side) on heart rate responses of female students during small-sided and conditioned handball games. The heart rate responses were measured using heart rate monitors during physical education classes. Eight female students participated in the study (15 ± 0.0 years). The one-way ANOVA showed statistical differences with moderate effect between the three different formats (F(2, 1674) = 86.538; p-value ˂ 0.001;  = 0.094; Power = 1.0). The results showed that smaller formats (2-a-side and 3-a-side) increased the heart rate responses of female students during small-sided and conditioned handball games during physical education (PE) classes. The results also suggested that 2-a-side games can be used for anaerobic workouts and the 3-a-side and 4-a-side games can be better used to reach lactate-threshold and for aerobic workouts of high intensity. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Physical Inactivity from the Viewpoint of Evolutionary Medicine
Sports 2014, 2(2), 34-50; doi:10.3390/sports2020034
Received: 1 January 2014 / Revised: 5 February 2014 / Accepted: 28 April 2014 / Published: 2 June 2014
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Abstract
Activity patterns of recent Homo sapiens are characterized by a sedentary life style and consequently by exercise deficiency. This lack of physical activity increases the risk of various chronic non-communicable diseases and reduces health related quality of life. From the perspective of [...] Read more.
Activity patterns of recent Homo sapiens are characterized by a sedentary life style and consequently by exercise deficiency. This lack of physical activity increases the risk of various chronic non-communicable diseases and reduces health related quality of life. From the perspective of evolutionary medicine, the high rates of non-communicable disease among contemporary industrialized populations may be interpreted as the result of a mismatch between high rates of physical activity in the adaptively relevant (ARE) and sedentary recent life circumstances. Public transport, cars, elevators, supermarkets and internet shopping diminished daily physical activities dramatically, therefore recent Homo sapiens suffer from the consequences of a convenient life style, which is completely new in our evolution and history. The only possibility to increase physical activity and enhance health and well-being is through sporting activities during leisure time. Full article

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