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Arts, Volume 6, Issue 1 (March 2017)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Function and Form: Shifts in Modernist Architects’ Design Thinking
Arts 2017, 6(1), 1; doi:10.3390/arts6010001
Received: 22 August 2016 / Revised: 20 October 2016 / Accepted: 3 November 2016 / Published: 9 January 2017
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Abstract
Since the so-called “type-debate” at the 1914 Werkbund Exhibition in Cologne—on individual versus standardized types—the discussion about turning Function into Form has been an important topic in Architectural Theory. The aim of this article is to trace the historic shifts in the relationship
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Since the so-called “type-debate” at the 1914 Werkbund Exhibition in Cologne—on individual versus standardized types—the discussion about turning Function into Form has been an important topic in Architectural Theory. The aim of this article is to trace the historic shifts in the relationship between Function and Form: First, how Functional Thinking was turned into an Art Form; this orginates in the Werkbund concept of artistic refinement of industrial production. Second, how Functional Analysis was applied to design and production processes, focused on certain aspects, such as economic management or floor plan design. Third, how Architectural Function was used as a social or political argument; this is of particular interest during the interwar years. A comparison of theses different aspects of the relationship between Function and Form reveals that it has undergone fundamental shifts—from Art to Science and Politics—that are tied to historic developments. It is interesting to note that this happens in a short period of time in the first half of the 20th Century. Looking at these historic shifts not only sheds new light on the creative process in Modern Architecture, this may also serve as a stepstone towards a new rethinking of Function and Form. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contemporary Architecture from the 20th Century to the Present)
Open AccessArticle Journalism, Caricature and Satirical Drawings in Early Picasso (1891–1895): The Awakening of Pablo Ruiz’s Critical Consciousness
Arts 2017, 6(1), 2; doi:10.3390/arts6010002
Received: 29 August 2016 / Revised: 6 October 2016 / Accepted: 20 October 2016 / Published: 14 March 2017
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Abstract
In Pablo Picasso’s formative period in A Coruña (1891–1895), where he was born as an artist, the child and pre-adolescent who at that time signed himself as Pablo Ruiz, already knowing he was a genius, pursued an intense programme of creative activity while
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In Pablo Picasso’s formative period in A Coruña (1891–1895), where he was born as an artist, the child and pre-adolescent who at that time signed himself as Pablo Ruiz, already knowing he was a genius, pursued an intense programme of creative activity while devoting himself to drawing and painting. Making use of his facility for reproducing the world around him in images, he also proved to be an incipient devotee of journalism as an instrument of communication and social awareness, a satirical draughtsman and caricaturist, seeking to give his version of events, in line with the magazines and newspapers of the period, and displaying a critical ability unusual in a child, a committed gaze, not devoid of humour and sarcasm, which prefigures the later Picasso with his progressive views, acute intelligence, meta-ironic approach and support for great causes.
Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pablo Picasso Studies)
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