Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Brain Sci., Volume 7, Issue 9 (September 2017)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-10
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessEditorial Risk Factors for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(9), 117; doi:10.3390/brainsci7090117
Received: 5 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 September 2017 / Published: 11 September 2017
PDF Full-text (131 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It was has been my pleasure to have acted as the guest editor for the Brain Sciences Special Issue on Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI).[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Factors for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI))

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Other

Open AccessArticle Problems in Classifying Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): One or Multiple Syndromes?
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(9), 111; doi:10.3390/brainsci7090111
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 31 July 2017 / Accepted: 29 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
PDF Full-text (458 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As the conceptual, methodological, and technological advances applied to dementias have evolved the construct of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), one problem encountered has been its classification into subtypes. Here, we aim to revise the concept of MCI and its subtypes, addressing the problems
[...] Read more.
As the conceptual, methodological, and technological advances applied to dementias have evolved the construct of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), one problem encountered has been its classification into subtypes. Here, we aim to revise the concept of MCI and its subtypes, addressing the problems of classification not only from the psychometric point of view or by using alternative methods, such as latent class analysis, but also considering the absence of normative data. In addition to the well-known influence of certain factors on cognitive function, such as educational level and cultural traits, recent studies highlight the relevance of other factors that may significantly affect the genesis and evolution of MCI: subjective memory complaints, loneliness, social isolation, etc. The present work will contemplate the most relevant attempts to clarify the issue of MCI categorization and classification, combining our own data with that from recent studies which suggest the role of relevant psychosocial factors in MCI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Factors for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI))
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Computer versus Compensatory Calendar Training in Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment: Functional Impact in a Pilot Study
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(9), 112; doi:10.3390/brainsci7090112
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 30 August 2017 / Accepted: 31 August 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
PDF Full-text (565 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This pilot study examined the functional impact of computerized versus compensatory calendar training in cognitive rehabilitation participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Fifty-seven participants with amnestic MCI completed randomly assigned calendar or computer training. A standard care control group was used for comparison.
[...] Read more.
This pilot study examined the functional impact of computerized versus compensatory calendar training in cognitive rehabilitation participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Fifty-seven participants with amnestic MCI completed randomly assigned calendar or computer training. A standard care control group was used for comparison. Measures of adherence, memory-based activities of daily living (mADLs), and self-efficacy were completed. The calendar training group demonstrated significant improvement in mADLs compared to controls, while the computer training group did not. Calendar training may be more effective in improving mADLs than computerized intervention. However, this study highlights how behavioral trials with fewer than 30–50 participants per arm are likely underpowered, resulting in seemingly null findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Factors for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI))
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Connecting the Dots between Schizotypal Symptoms and Social Anxiety in Youth with an Extra X Chromosome: A Mediating Role for Catastrophizing
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(9), 113; doi:10.3390/brainsci7090113
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 30 August 2017 / Accepted: 2 September 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
PDF Full-text (378 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Youth with an extra X chromosome (47, XXY & 47, XXX) display higher levels of schizotypal symptoms and social anxiety as compared to typically developing youth. It is likely that the extra X chromosome group is at-risk for clinical levels of schizotypy and
[...] Read more.
Youth with an extra X chromosome (47, XXY & 47, XXX) display higher levels of schizotypal symptoms and social anxiety as compared to typically developing youth. It is likely that the extra X chromosome group is at-risk for clinical levels of schizotypy and social anxiety. Hence, this study investigated how schizotypal and social anxiety symptoms are related and mechanisms that may explain their association in a group of 38 children and adolescents with an extra X chromosome and a comparison group of 109 typically developing peers (8–19 years). Three cognitive coping strategies were investigated as potential mediators, rumination, catastrophizing, and other-blame. Moderated mediation analyses revealed that the relationship between schizotypal symptoms and social anxiety was mediated by catastrophizing coping in the extra X chromosome group but not in the comparison group. The results suggest that youth with an extra X chromosome with schizotypal symptoms could benefit from an intervention to weaken the tendency to catastrophize life events as a way of reducing the likelihood of social anxiety symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social Anxiety Disorder in Emerging or Early Psychosis)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Time-Frequency Analysis of Mu Rhythm Activity during Picture and Video Action Naming Tasks
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(9), 114; doi:10.3390/brainsci7090114
Received: 31 July 2017 / Revised: 24 August 2017 / Accepted: 30 August 2017 / Published: 6 September 2017
PDF Full-text (1155 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study used whole-head 64 channel electroencephalography to measure changes in sensorimotor activity—as indexed by the mu rhythm—in neurologically-healthy adults, during subvocal confrontation naming tasks. Independent component analyses revealed sensorimotor mu component clusters in the right and left hemispheres. Event related spectral perturbation
[...] Read more.
This study used whole-head 64 channel electroencephalography to measure changes in sensorimotor activity—as indexed by the mu rhythm—in neurologically-healthy adults, during subvocal confrontation naming tasks. Independent component analyses revealed sensorimotor mu component clusters in the right and left hemispheres. Event related spectral perturbation analyses indicated significantly stronger patterns of mu rhythm activity (pFDR < 0.05) during the video condition as compared to the picture condition, specifically in the left hemisphere. Mu activity is hypothesized to reflect typical patterns of sensorimotor activation during action verb naming tasks. These results support further investigation into sensorimotor cortical activity during action verb naming in clinical populations. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Childhood Autism
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(9), 115; doi:10.3390/brainsci7090115
Received: 15 August 2017 / Revised: 2 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 September 2017 / Published: 9 September 2017
PDF Full-text (493 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of heterogeneous, behaviorally defined disorders whereby currently no biological markers are common to all affected individuals. A deregulated immune response may be contributing to the etiology of ASD. The active metabolite of vitamin D3
[...] Read more.
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of heterogeneous, behaviorally defined disorders whereby currently no biological markers are common to all affected individuals. A deregulated immune response may be contributing to the etiology of ASD. The active metabolite of vitamin D3 has an immunoregulatory role mediated by binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in monocyte, macrophages, and lymphocytes. The effects of vitamin D and interaction with the VDR may be influenced by polymorphism in the VDR gene. Methods: Genetic association of four different VDR polymorphisms (Apa-I, Bsm-I, Taq-I, Fok-I) associated with susceptibility to the development of autism in children was investigated. Results: We uniquely found an association between the presence of the T allele at position Taq-I and presence of the a allele at position Apa-I of the VDR gene with decreased ASD incidence. There was also an association between female gender and the presence of the T allele. We found no statistical significant correlation between VDR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and vitamin D3 concentration in serum of ASD children. Conclusion: Genetic polymorphism in two SNP in VDR may be correlated with development of ASD symptoms by influencing functionality of vitamin D3 metabolism, while vitamin D3 levels were not significantly different between ASD and non-ASD children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Autism Spectrum Disorder: From Etio-Pathology to Treatment)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Feasibility of Equivalent Dipole Models for Electroencephalogram-Based Brain Computer Interfaces
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(9), 118; doi:10.3390/brainsci7090118
Received: 5 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 13 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
PDF Full-text (2970 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article examines the localization errors of equivalent dipolar sources inverted from the surface electroencephalogram in order to determine the feasibility of using their location as classification parameters for non-invasive brain computer interfaces. Inverse localization errors are examined for two head models: a
[...] Read more.
This article examines the localization errors of equivalent dipolar sources inverted from the surface electroencephalogram in order to determine the feasibility of using their location as classification parameters for non-invasive brain computer interfaces. Inverse localization errors are examined for two head models: a model represented by four concentric spheres and a realistic model based on medical imagery. It is shown that the spherical model results in localization ambiguity such that a number of dipolar sources, with different azimuths and varying orientations, provide a near match to the electroencephalogram of the best equivalent source. No such ambiguity exists for the elevation of inverted sources, indicating that for spherical head models, only the elevation of inverted sources (and not the azimuth) can be expected to provide meaningful classification parameters for brain–computer interfaces. In a realistic head model, all three parameters of the inverted source location are found to be reliable, providing a more robust set of parameters. In both cases, the residual error hypersurfaces demonstrate local minima, indicating that a search for the best-matching sources should be global. Source localization error vs. signal-to-noise ratio is also demonstrated for both head models. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Investing in the Early Childhood Mental Health Workforce Development: Enhancing Professionals’ Competencies to Support Emotion and Behavior Regulation in Young Children
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(9), 120; doi:10.3390/brainsci7090120
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 15 September 2017 / Accepted: 15 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
PDF Full-text (568 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper delineates a preventive approach to early childhood mental health by preparing the workforce to provide relational, sensitive care to young children ages 0–5. One of the most prevalent issues in early childhood is behavioral challenges and the inability of young children
[...] Read more.
This paper delineates a preventive approach to early childhood mental health by preparing the workforce to provide relational, sensitive care to young children ages 0–5. One of the most prevalent issues in early childhood is behavioral challenges and the inability of young children to regulate themselves. This leads to an expulsion rate in early childhood (3–4 times higher than K-12 expulsion rate) and future mental health issues. The Early Childhood Social-Emotional and Behavior Regulation Intervention Specialist (EC-SEBRIS) graduate level certificate program was created to strengthen early care and education providers with the knowledge and practice of how to support emotion and behavior regulation in young children in their groups. Evaluation data provide evidence that early care and education professionals increased in their perception of self-efficacy and in their sensitivity of care and skills to support behavioral health in young children. Results indicated that the children in their care showed less challenging behaviors and increased social competencies. This manuscript highlights the importance of prevention and the dire need to provide young children with high-quality, appropriate care to support their mental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Illness in Children)
Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessErratum Erratum: Balconi, M.; et al. Evidences from Rewarding System, FRN and P300 Effect in Internet-Addiction in Young People SHORT TITLE: Rewarding System and EEG in Internet-Addiction Brain Sciences 2017, 7, 81
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(9), 116; doi:10.3390/brainsci7090116
Received: 30 August 2017 / Accepted: 7 September 2017 / Published: 11 September 2017
PDF Full-text (152 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We would like to submit the following erratum to our recently published paper [1] due to the error in the title.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurological Research on Learning, Reward and Decision Making)
Open AccessConcept Paper COACH CV: The Seven Clinical Phenotypes of Concussion
Brain Sci. 2017, 7(9), 119; doi:10.3390/brainsci7090119
Received: 26 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
PDF Full-text (174 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Our understanding of the diverse physiological manifestations of concussion is changing rapidly. This has an influence on the clinical assessment of patients who have sustained a concussion. The 2017 Consensus Statement on Concussion in Sport states that numerous post-injury clinical findings, such as
[...] Read more.
Our understanding of the diverse physiological manifestations of concussion is changing rapidly. This has an influence on the clinical assessment of patients who have sustained a concussion. The 2017 Consensus Statement on Concussion in Sport states that numerous post-injury clinical findings, such as cognitive deficits, post-traumatic headaches, dizziness, difficulties with oculomotor function, and depression have all been associated with a poorer prognosis in concussed patients. This demonstrates that there are several potential clinical manifestations after head injury warranting clinical evaluation. We have developed an acronym to guide the office-based assessment of concussed patients to consider each of the potential clinical phenotypes. “COACH CV” prompts the clinician to evaluate for cognitive problems, oculomotor dysfunction, affective disturbances, cervical spine disorders, headaches, and cardiovascular and vestibular anomalies. Full article

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
Brain Sciences Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
E-Mail: 
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to Brain Sciences Edit a special issue Review for Brain Sciences
logo
loading...
Back to Top