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J. Clin. Med., Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2013), Pages 176-330

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Can Zoledronic Acid be Beneficial for Promoting Tumor Response in Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy?
J. Clin. Med. 2013, 2(4), 188-200; doi:10.3390/jcm2040188
Received: 16 August 2013 / Revised: 5 September 2013 / Accepted: 11 September 2013 / Published: 16 October 2013
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Abstract
The antitumor effect of bisphosphonates (BPs) is under increasing scrutiny. Preclinical and clinical evidence has shown that BPs might sensitize breast tumors to chemotherapy. Here, we present a review of current preclinical and clinical evidence for antitumor effects of BPs, and evaluate how
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The antitumor effect of bisphosphonates (BPs) is under increasing scrutiny. Preclinical and clinical evidence has shown that BPs might sensitize breast tumors to chemotherapy. Here, we present a review of current preclinical and clinical evidence for antitumor effects of BPs, and evaluate how BPs might play a role in neoadjuvant treatment of women with breast cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention and Treatment of Bone Metastases from Breast Cancer)
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Open AccessArticle How do Midwives and Physicians Discuss Childhood Vaccination with Parents?
J. Clin. Med. 2013, 2(4), 242-259; doi:10.3390/jcm2040242
Received: 12 September 2013 / Revised: 10 October 2013 / Accepted: 11 October 2013 / Published: 4 November 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (207 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Even if vaccination is often described as one of the great achievements of public health, results of recent studies have shown that parental acceptance of vaccination is eroding. Health providers’ knowledge and attitudes about vaccines are important determinants of their own vaccine uptake,
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Even if vaccination is often described as one of the great achievements of public health, results of recent studies have shown that parental acceptance of vaccination is eroding. Health providers’ knowledge and attitudes about vaccines are important determinants of their own vaccine uptake, their intention to recommend vaccines to patients and the vaccine uptake of their patients. The purpose of this article is to compare how midwives and physicians address vaccination with parents during pregnancy and in postpartum visits. Thirty semi-structured interviews were conducted with midwives and physicians practicing in the province of Quebec, Canada. Results of our analysis have shown that physicians adopt an “education-information” stance when discussing vaccination with parents in the attempt to “convince” parents to vaccinate. In contrast, midwives adopted a neutral stance and gave information on the pros and cons of vaccination to parents while leaving the final decision up to them. Findings of this study highlight the fact that physicians and midwives have different views regarding their role and responsibilities concerning vaccination. It may be that neither of these approaches is optimal in promoting vaccination uptake. Full article
Open AccessCommunication Cutaneous Cryptococcoma in a Patient on TNF-α Inhibition
J. Clin. Med. 2013, 2(4), 260-263; doi:10.3390/jcm2040260
Received: 8 October 2013 / Revised: 1 November 2013 / Accepted: 15 November 2013 / Published: 22 November 2013
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Abstract
An 87-year old Caucasian male with past medical history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and chronic kidney disease presents with left hand erythema, pain, tenderness, induration and edema. Clinically, these hand findings began proximal to the metacarpo-phalangeal joints and extended to the distal wrist.
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An 87-year old Caucasian male with past medical history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and chronic kidney disease presents with left hand erythema, pain, tenderness, induration and edema. Clinically, these hand findings began proximal to the metacarpo-phalangeal joints and extended to the distal wrist. He was noted to have ipsilateral axillary lymph node enlargement but denied any constitutional signs or symptoms. Laboratory markers of inflammation were poor prognostic indicators due to relatively active RA, the use of chronic daily glucocorticoids and weekly adalimumab use. Oral antibiotics were administered with limited success leading to a skin biopsy which reported a hematogenously disseminated fungal panniculitis; cultures grew Cryptococcus neoformans, however, serum cryptococcal antigen was negative. With initial fluconazole treatment, skin findings and lymphadenopathy improved gradually over the next six months. However, the patient’s improvement stagnated and his condition reverted back to the state of initial presentation. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Bone Targeted Therapies for Bone Metastasis in Breast Cancer
J. Clin. Med. 2013, 2(4), 176-187; doi:10.3390/jcm2040176
Received: 18 July 2013 / Revised: 7 August 2013 / Accepted: 10 September 2013 / Published: 14 October 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (220 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cancer metastasis to the bone develops commonly in patients with various malignancies, and is a major cause of morbidity and diminished quality of life in many affected patients. Emerging treatments for metastatic bone disease have arisen from advances in our understanding of the
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Cancer metastasis to the bone develops commonly in patients with various malignancies, and is a major cause of morbidity and diminished quality of life in many affected patients. Emerging treatments for metastatic bone disease have arisen from advances in our understanding of the unique cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to the bone metastasis. The tendency of cancer cells to metastasize to bone is probably the end result of many factors including vascular pathways, the highly vascular nature of the bone marrow (which increases the probability that cancer cells will be deposited in bone marrow capillaries), and molecular characteristics of the cancer cells that allow them to adapt to the bone marrow microenvironment. The goals of treating osseous metastases are manifold. Proper treatment can lead to significant improvements in pain control and function, and maintain skeletal integrity. The treatment plan requires a multidisciplinary approach. Widespread metastatic disease necessitates systemic therapy, while a localized problem is best managed with surgery, external beam radiotherapy, or both. Patients with bone metastasis can have prolonged survival, and proper management can have a significant impact on their quality of life. We will review the factors in this article that are promising molecular bone-targeted therapies or will be likely targets for future therapeutic intervention to restore bone remodeling and suppress tumor growth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention and Treatment of Bone Metastases from Breast Cancer)
Open AccessReview Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Updates and Therapeutic Outlook in Rheumatic Diseases
J. Clin. Med. 2013, 2(4), 201-213; doi:10.3390/jcm2040201
Received: 16 August 2013 / Revised: 10 September 2013 / Accepted: 27 September 2013 / Published: 23 October 2013
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Abstract
Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells exhibiting functional properties that have opened the way for cell-based clinical therapies. MSCs have been reported to exhibit immunosuppressive as well as healing properties, improving angiogenesis and preventing apoptosis or
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Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells exhibiting functional properties that have opened the way for cell-based clinical therapies. MSCs have been reported to exhibit immunosuppressive as well as healing properties, improving angiogenesis and preventing apoptosis or fibrosis through the secretion of paracrine mediators. This review summarizes recent progress on the clinical application of stem cells therapy in some inflammatory and degenerative rheumatic diseases. To date, most of the available data have been obtained in preclinical models and clinical efficacy needs to be evaluated through controlled randomized double-blind trials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Stem Cell Treatments)
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Open AccessReview An Update on Translating Stem Cell Therapy for Stroke from Bench to Bedside
J. Clin. Med. 2013, 2(4), 220-241; doi:10.3390/jcm2040220
Received: 29 August 2013 / Revised: 16 September 2013 / Accepted: 21 September 2013 / Published: 1 November 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (351 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With a constellation of stem cell sources available, researchers hope to utilize their potential for cellular repair as a therapeutic target for disease. However, many lab-to-clinic translational considerations must be given in determining their efficacy, variables such as the host response, effects on
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With a constellation of stem cell sources available, researchers hope to utilize their potential for cellular repair as a therapeutic target for disease. However, many lab-to-clinic translational considerations must be given in determining their efficacy, variables such as the host response, effects on native tissue, and potential for generating tumors. This review will discuss the current knowledge of stem cell research in neurological disease, mainly stroke, with a focus on the benefits, limitations, and clinical potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Stem Cell Treatments)
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Open AccessReview The Roles of Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and Mesenchymal-to-Epithelial Transition (MET) in Breast Cancer Bone Metastasis: Potential Targets for Prevention and Treatment
J. Clin. Med. 2013, 2(4), 264-282; doi:10.3390/jcm2040264
Received: 20 September 2013 / Revised: 25 October 2013 / Accepted: 8 November 2013 / Published: 22 November 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (361 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many studies have revealed molecular connections between breast and bone. Genes, important in the control of bone remodeling, such as receptor activator of nuclear kappa (RANK), receptor activator of nuclear kappa ligand (RANKL), vitamin D, bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteopontin (OPN), and calcitonin, are
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Many studies have revealed molecular connections between breast and bone. Genes, important in the control of bone remodeling, such as receptor activator of nuclear kappa (RANK), receptor activator of nuclear kappa ligand (RANKL), vitamin D, bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteopontin (OPN), and calcitonin, are expressed in breast cancer and lactating breast. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) effectors play critical roles during embryonic development, postnatal growth, and epithelial homeostasis, but also are involved in a number of pathological conditions, including wound repair, fibrosis, inflammation, as well as cancer progression and bone metastasis. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), insulin-like growth factor I & II (IGF I & II), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH(rP)), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epithelial growth factors II/I (ErbB/EGF), interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-11, IL-1, integrin αvβ3, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), catepsin K, hypoxia, notch, Wnt, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), and hedgehog signaling pathways are important EMT and MET effectors identified in the bone microenviroment facilitating bone metastasis formation. Recently, Runx2, an essential transcription factor in the regulation of mesenchymal cell differentiation into the osteoblast lineage and proper bone development, is also well-recognized for its expression in breast cancer cells promoting osteolytic bone metastasis. Understanding the precise mechanisms of EMT and MET in the pathogenesis of breast cancer bone metastasis can inform the direction of therapeutic intervention and possibly prevention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention and Treatment of Bone Metastases from Breast Cancer)
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Open AccessReview Bone Health in Patients with Breast Cancer: Recommendations from an Evidence-Based Canadian Guideline
J. Clin. Med. 2013, 2(4), 283-301; doi:10.3390/jcm2040283
Received: 9 November 2013 / Revised: 26 November 2013 / Accepted: 28 November 2013 / Published: 17 December 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (227 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bone loss is common in patients with breast cancer. Bone modifying agents (BMAs), such as bisphosphonates and denosumab, have been shown to reverse or stabilize bone loss and may be useful in the primary and metastatic settings. The purpose of this review is
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Bone loss is common in patients with breast cancer. Bone modifying agents (BMAs), such as bisphosphonates and denosumab, have been shown to reverse or stabilize bone loss and may be useful in the primary and metastatic settings. The purpose of this review is to provide clear evidence-based strategies for the management of bone loss and its symptoms in breast cancer. A systematic review of clinical trials and meta-analyses published between 1996 and 2012 was conducted of MEDLINE and EMBASE. Reference lists were hand-searched for additional publications. Recommendations were developed based on the best available evidence. Zoledronate, pamidronate, clodronate, and denosumab are recommended for metastatic breast cancer patients; however, no one agent can be recommended over another. Zoledronate or any oral bisphosphonate and denosumab should be considered in primary breast cancer patients who are postmenopausal on aromatase inhibitor therapy and have a high risk of fracture and/or a low bone mineral density and in premenopausal primary breast cancer patients who become amenorrheic after therapy. No one agent can be recommended over another. BMAs are not currently recommended as adjuvant therapy in primary breast cancer for the purpose of improving survival, although a major Early Breast Cancer Cooperative Trialists’ Group meta-analysis is underway which may impact future practice. Adverse events can be managed with appropriate supportive care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Prevention and Treatment of Bone Metastases from Breast Cancer)
Open AccessReview The Regenerative Role of the Fetal and Adult Stem Cell Secretome
J. Clin. Med. 2013, 2(4), 302-327; doi:10.3390/jcm2040302
Received: 9 October 2013 / Revised: 17 November 2013 / Accepted: 25 November 2013 / Published: 17 December 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (382 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For a long time, the stem cell regenerative paradigm has been based on the assumption that progenitor cells play a critical role in tissue repair by means of their plasticity and differentiation potential. However, recent works suggest that the mechanism underlying the benefits
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For a long time, the stem cell regenerative paradigm has been based on the assumption that progenitor cells play a critical role in tissue repair by means of their plasticity and differentiation potential. However, recent works suggest that the mechanism underlying the benefits of stem cell transplantation might relate to a paracrine modulatory effect rather than the replacement of affected cells at the site of injury. Therefore, mounting evidence that stem cells may act as a reservoir of trophic signals released to modulate the surrounding tissue has led to a paradigm shift in regenerative medicine. Attention has been shifted from analysis of the stem cell genome to understanding the stem cell “secretome”, which is represented by the growth factors, cytokines and chemokines produced through paracrine secretion. Insights into paracrine-mediated repair support a new approach in regenerative medicine and the isolation and administration of specific stem cell-derived paracrine factors may represent an extremely promising strategy, introducing paracrine-based therapy as a novel and feasible clinical application. In this review, we will discuss the regenerative potential of fetal and adult stem cells, with particular attention to their secretome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Stem Cell Treatments)
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessCase Report Laparoscopic Surgery for Ovarian Pregnancy using Diathermy Hook with Conservation of Ovary: A Case Report and Literature Review
J. Clin. Med. 2013, 2(4), 214-219; doi:10.3390/jcm2040214
Received: 6 September 2013 / Revised: 10 October 2013 / Accepted: 23 October 2013 / Published: 31 October 2013
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Abstract
A 31-year-old woman presented with a 7-week history of irregular vaginal bleeding without abdominal pain. She had been using the intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) for the last 3 years. A pregnancy test was positive and subsequent serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) was
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A 31-year-old woman presented with a 7-week history of irregular vaginal bleeding without abdominal pain. She had been using the intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) for the last 3 years. A pregnancy test was positive and subsequent serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) was 4992 mIU/mL. A transvaginal ultrasound scan demonstrated an empty uterus with an associated adnexal mass but no free fluid. A right primary ovarian ectopic pregnancy was diagnosed a laparoscopy. This was managed laparoscopically using monopolar diathermy hook with conservation of the ovary and minimal blood loss. Ovarian pregnancy is rare, especially in women without the classical risk factors for tubal pregnancy, and efforts should be made to exclude ectopic pregnancy in the absence of abdominal pain in a woman of reproductive age presenting with prolonged and irregular vaginal bleeding. Methods to conserve the ovary are also encouraged in cases of ovarian pregnancy. Full article
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Open AccessLetter Repeat Lumbar Puncture: CSF Lactic Acid Levels are Predictive of Cure with Acute Bacterial Meningitis
J. Clin. Med. 2013, 2(4), 328-330; doi:10.3390/jcm2040328
Received: 5 November 2013 / Revised: 4 December 2013 / Accepted: 13 December 2013 / Published: 17 December 2013
PDF Full-text (138 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A common clinical problem concerns the utility of repeat lumbar puncture (LP) in adults with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM), e.g., pneumococcal meningitis [1]. An LP is initially done for diagnostic purposes in patients with suspected ABM, i.e., diagnostic lumbar puncture (DLP). A
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A common clinical problem concerns the utility of repeat lumbar puncture (LP) in adults with acute bacterial meningitis (ABM), e.g., pneumococcal meningitis [1]. An LP is initially done for diagnostic purposes in patients with suspected ABM, i.e., diagnostic lumbar puncture (DLP). A repeat LP (RLP) may be done 1–3 days after the initial DLP, if the patient shows no improvement. If a patient with ABM is not doing well after three days, adequacy of antimicrobial therapy is the main concern. Other reasons for RLP is to detect possible intracranial complications of ABM unrelated to adequacy of therapy [1–2]. Full article

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