Effluent Mixing Modeling for Liquefied Natural Gas Outfalls in a Coastal Ecosystem
AbstractLiquid Natural Gas (LNG) processing facilities typically are located on ocean shores for easy transport of LNG by marine vessels. These plants use large quantities of water for various process streams. The combined wastewater effluents from the LNG plants are discharged to the coastal and marine environments typically through submarine outfalls. Proper disposal of effluents from an LNG plant is essential to retain local and regional environmental values and to ensure regulatory and permit compliance for industrial effluents. Typical outfall designs involve multi-port diffuser systems where the design forms a part of the overall environmental impact assessment for the plant. The design approach needs to ensure that both near-field plume dispersion and far-field effluent circulation meets the specified mixing zone criteria. This paper describes typical wastewater process streams from an LNG plant and presents a diffuser system design case study (for an undisclosed project location) in a meso-tidal coast to meet the effluent mixing zone criteria. The outfall is located in a coastal and marine ecosystem where the large tidal range and persistent surface wind govern conditions for the diffuser design. Physical environmental attributes and permit compliance criteria are discussed in a generic format. The paper describes the design approach, conceptualization of numerical model schemes for near- and far-field effluent mixing zones, and the selected diffuser design.
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Samad, M.; El-Kheiashy, K. Effluent Mixing Modeling for Liquefied Natural Gas Outfalls in a Coastal Ecosystem. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2014, 2, 493-505.
Samad M, El-Kheiashy K. Effluent Mixing Modeling for Liquefied Natural Gas Outfalls in a Coastal Ecosystem. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2014; 2(2):493-505.Chicago/Turabian Style
Samad, Mustafa; El-Kheiashy, Karim. 2014. "Effluent Mixing Modeling for Liquefied Natural Gas Outfalls in a Coastal Ecosystem." J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2, no. 2: 493-505.