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Information, Volume 8, Issue 3 (September 2017)

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Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Special Issue on Mobile Systems, Mobile Networks, and Mobile Cloud: Security, Privacy, and Digital Forensics
Information 2017, 8(3), 99; doi:10.3390/info8030099
Received: 14 August 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 14 August 2017 / Published: 15 August 2017
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Abstract
The use of smartphones and mobile devices has become an indispensable part of everyone’s daily life and work [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Pokémon GO Forensics: An Android Application Analysis
Information 2017, 8(3), 71; doi:10.3390/info8030071
Received: 25 May 2017 / Revised: 16 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 23 June 2017
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Abstract
As the geolocation capabilities of smartphones continue to improve, developers have continued to create more innovative applications that rely on this location information for their primary function. This can be seen with Niantic’s release of Pokémon GO, which is a massively multiplayer online
[...] Read more.
As the geolocation capabilities of smartphones continue to improve, developers have continued to create more innovative applications that rely on this location information for their primary function. This can be seen with Niantic’s release of Pokémon GO, which is a massively multiplayer online role playing and augmented reality game. This game became immensely popular within just a few days of its release. However, it also had the propensity to be a distraction to drivers, resulting in numerous accidents, and was used as a tool by armed robbers to lure unsuspecting users into secluded areas. This facilitates the need for forensic investigators to be able to analyze the data within the application in order to determine if it may have been involved in these incidents. Because this application is new, limited research has been conducted regarding the artifacts that can be recovered from the application. In this paper, we aim to fill the gaps within the current research by assessing what forensically-relevant information may be recovered from the application and understanding the circumstances behind the creation of this information. Our research focuses primarily on the artifacts generated by the Upsight analytics platform, those contained within the bundles directory and the Pokémon Go Plus accessory. Moreover, we present our new application-specific analysis tool that is capable of extracting forensic artifacts from a backup of the Android application and presenting them to an investigator in an easily-readable format. This analysis tool exceeds the capabilities of the well known mobile forensic tool Cellebrite’s UFED (Universal Forensic Extraction Device) Physical Analyzer in processing Pokémon GO application data. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Deployment and Field Evaluation of In-Vehicle Traffic Signal Advisory System (ITSAS)
Information 2017, 8(3), 72; doi:10.3390/info8030072
Received: 3 May 2017 / Revised: 21 June 2017 / Accepted: 22 June 2017 / Published: 25 June 2017
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Abstract
This research evaluates the impact of In-vehicle Signal Advisory System (ITSAS) on signalized arterial. ITSAS provides individual drivers equipped with a mobile communication device with advisory speed information enabling to minimize the time delay and fuel consumption when crossing intersection. Given the instantaneous
[...] Read more.
This research evaluates the impact of In-vehicle Signal Advisory System (ITSAS) on signalized arterial. ITSAS provides individual drivers equipped with a mobile communication device with advisory speed information enabling to minimize the time delay and fuel consumption when crossing intersection. Given the instantaneous vehicular driving information, such as position, speed, and acceleration rate, ITSAS produces advisory speed information by taking into consideration the traffic signal changes at a downstream intersection. The advisory speed information includes not only an optimal speed range updated every 300-ft for individual drivers but also a descriptive message to warn drivers stop to ensure safety at the downstream intersection. Unlike other similar Connected Vehicles applications for intersection management, ITSAS does not require Roadside Equipment (RSE) to disseminate the advisory speed information as it is designed to exploit commercial cellular network service (i.e., 3G and 4G-LTE). Thus, ITSAS can be easily plugged into existing traffic control management system to rapidly conduct its implementation without significant additional cost. This research presents the field evaluations of ITSAS on a signalized corridor in New Jersey, which discovered significant travel time savings for the equipped vehicle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Transportation Systems)
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Open AccessArticle An Overview on Evaluating and Predicting Scholarly Article Impact
Information 2017, 8(3), 73; doi:10.3390/info8030073
Received: 23 May 2017 / Revised: 22 June 2017 / Accepted: 23 June 2017 / Published: 25 June 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1803 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Scholarly article impact reflects the significance of academic output recognised by academic peers, and it often plays a crucial role in assessing the scientific achievements of researchers, teams, institutions and countries. It is also used for addressing various needs in the academic and
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Scholarly article impact reflects the significance of academic output recognised by academic peers, and it often plays a crucial role in assessing the scientific achievements of researchers, teams, institutions and countries. It is also used for addressing various needs in the academic and scientific arena, such as recruitment decisions, promotions, and funding allocations. This article provides a comprehensive review of recent progresses related to article impact assessment and prediction. The review starts by sharing some insight into the article impact research and outlines current research status. Some core methods and recent progress are presented to outline how article impact metrics and prediction have evolved to consider integrating multiple networks. Key techniques, including statistical analysis, machine learning, data mining and network science, are discussed. In particular, we highlight important applications of each technique in article impact research. Subsequently, we discuss the open issues and challenges of article impact research. At the same time, this review points out some important research directions, including article impact evaluation by considering Conflict of Interest, time and location information, various distributions of scholarly entities, and rising stars. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Discovering and Understanding City Events with Big Data: The Case of Rome
Information 2017, 8(3), 74; doi:10.3390/info8030074
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 21 June 2017 / Accepted: 25 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
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Abstract
The increasing availability of large amounts of data and digital footprints has given rise to ambitious research challenges in many fields, which spans from medical research, financial and commercial world, to people and environmental monitoring. Whereas traditional data sources and census fail in
[...] Read more.
The increasing availability of large amounts of data and digital footprints has given rise to ambitious research challenges in many fields, which spans from medical research, financial and commercial world, to people and environmental monitoring. Whereas traditional data sources and census fail in capturing actual and up-to-date behaviors, Big Data integrate the missing knowledge providing useful and hidden information to analysts and decision makers. With this paper, we focus on the identification of city events by analyzing mobile phone data (Call Detail Record), and we study and evaluate the impact of these events over the typical city dynamics. We present an analytical process able to discover, understand and characterize city events from Call Detail Record, designing a distributed computation to implement Sociometer, that is a profiling tool to categorize phone users. The methodology provides an useful tool for city mobility manager to manage the events and taking future decisions on specific classes of users, i.e., residents, commuters and tourists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Big Data Analytics and Data-Driven Science)
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Open AccessArticle Data-Aided and Non-Data-Aided SNR Estimators for CPM Signals in Ka-Band Satellite Communications
Information 2017, 8(3), 75; doi:10.3390/info8030075
Received: 16 May 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 30 June 2017
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Abstract
Adaptive coded and modulation (ACM) is an effective measure to resist rain attenuation in Ka-band satellite communications. The accuracy of the estimator for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is one of the main factors that affect ACM performance. This paper establishes the channel model of
[...] Read more.
Adaptive coded and modulation (ACM) is an effective measure to resist rain attenuation in Ka-band satellite communications. The accuracy of the estimator for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is one of the main factors that affect ACM performance. This paper establishes the channel model of satellite communication in Ka-band and derives and analyzes data-aided (DA) maximum likelihood (ML) and method-of-moments estimators for SNR of continuous phase modulation (CPM) in Ka-band fading channel. Simulations and analysis indicate that the normalized mean square error (NMSE) of the DA ML estimator is closer to the Cramer-Rao bounds (CRB) at low SNR, but the performance worsens with the SNR increases from medium to high values. The M2M4 estimator performs poorly at low SNR and best at medium SNR. When the SNR is low, the performance of the DA ML estimator is better than the M2M4 estimator; however, the two estimators have similar performance when SNR is high. The performances of the two estimators will become increasingly better the greater the lengths of the observation signals become. However, the influence of the signal length will become increasingly smaller as the SNR becomes larger. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Insecure Network, Unknown Connection: Understanding Wi-Fi Privacy Assumptions of Mobile Device Users
Information 2017, 8(3), 76; doi:10.3390/info8030076
Received: 8 May 2017 / Revised: 23 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 1 July 2017
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Abstract
Smartphones and other mobile devices have proliferated in the past five years. The expectation of mobile device users to always be online has led to Wi-Fi networks being offered by a variety of providers. Using these networks introduces multiple security risks. In this
[...] Read more.
Smartphones and other mobile devices have proliferated in the past five years. The expectation of mobile device users to always be online has led to Wi-Fi networks being offered by a variety of providers. Using these networks introduces multiple security risks. In this work, we assess to what extent the privacy stance of mobile device users corresponds with their actual behavior by conducting a study with 108 participants. Our methodology consists of monitoring Wi-Fi networks that the participants’ devices connect to and the connections made by apps on these devices, for a period of 30 days. Afterwards, participants are surveyed about their awareness and privacy sensitiveness. We show that while a higher expertise in computer networks corresponds to more awareness about the connections made by apps, neither this expertise nor the actual privacy stance of the participant translates to better security habits. Moreover, participants in general were unaware about a significant part of connections made by apps on their devices, a matter that is worsened by the fact that one third of Wi-Fi networks that participants connect to do not have any security enabled. Based on our results, we provide recommendations to network providers, developers and users on how to improve Wi-Fi security for mobile devices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Designing the Health-related Internet of Things: Ethical Principles and Guidelines
Information 2017, 8(3), 77; doi:10.3390/info8030077
Received: 29 March 2017 / Revised: 28 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 1 July 2017
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Abstract
The conjunction of wireless computing, ubiquitous Internet access, and the miniaturisation of sensors have opened the door for technological applications that can monitor health and well-being outside of formal healthcare systems. The health-related Internet of Things (H-IoT) increasingly plays a key role in
[...] Read more.
The conjunction of wireless computing, ubiquitous Internet access, and the miniaturisation of sensors have opened the door for technological applications that can monitor health and well-being outside of formal healthcare systems. The health-related Internet of Things (H-IoT) increasingly plays a key role in health management by providing real-time tele-monitoring of patients, testing of treatments, actuation of medical devices, and fitness and well-being monitoring. Given its numerous applications and proposed benefits, adoption by medical and social care institutions and consumers may be rapid. However, a host of ethical concerns are also raised that must be addressed. The inherent sensitivity of health-related data being generated and latent risks of Internet-enabled devices pose serious challenges. Users, already in a vulnerable position as patients, face a seemingly impossible task to retain control over their data due to the scale, scope and complexity of systems that create, aggregate, and analyse personal health data. In response, the H-IoT must be designed to be technologically robust and scientifically reliable, while also remaining ethically responsible, trustworthy, and respectful of user rights and interests. To assist developers of the H-IoT, this paper describes nine principles and nine guidelines for ethical design of H-IoT devices and data protocols. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Generalized Triangular Intuitionistic Fuzzy Geometric Averaging Operator for Decision-Making in Engineering and Management
Information 2017, 8(3), 78; doi:10.3390/info8030078
Received: 14 June 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 27 June 2017 / Published: 14 August 2017
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Abstract
Triangular intuitionistic fuzzy number (TIFN) is a more generalized platform for expressing imprecise, incomplete, and inconsistent information when solving multi-criteria decision-making problems, as well as for expressing and reflecting the evaluation information in several dimensions. In this paper, the TIFN has been applied
[...] Read more.
Triangular intuitionistic fuzzy number (TIFN) is a more generalized platform for expressing imprecise, incomplete, and inconsistent information when solving multi-criteria decision-making problems, as well as for expressing and reflecting the evaluation information in several dimensions. In this paper, the TIFN has been applied for solving multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problems, first, by defining some existing triangular intuitionistic fuzzy geometric aggregation operators, and then developing a new triangular intuitionistic fuzzy geometric aggregation operator, which is the generalized triangular intuitionistic fuzzy ordered weighted geometric averaging (GTIFOWGA) operator. Based on these operators, a new approach for solving multicriteria decision-making problems when the weight information is fixed is proposed. Finally, a numerical example is provided to show the applicability and rationality of the presented method, followed by a comparative analysis using similar existing computational approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Information Theory and Methodology)
Open AccessArticle Information Mining from Heterogeneous Data Sources: A Case Study on Drought Predictions
Information 2017, 8(3), 79; doi:10.3390/info8030079
Received: 2 May 2017 / Revised: 26 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 3 July 2017
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to develop information mining methodology for drought modeling and predictions using historical records of climate, satellite, environmental, and oceanic data. The classification and regression tree (CART) approach was used for extracting drought episodes at different time-lag prediction
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The objective of this study was to develop information mining methodology for drought modeling and predictions using historical records of climate, satellite, environmental, and oceanic data. The classification and regression tree (CART) approach was used for extracting drought episodes at different time-lag prediction intervals. Using the CART approach, a number of successful model trees were constructed, which can easily be interpreted and used by decision makers in their drought management decisions. The regression rules produced by CART were found to have correlation coefficients from 0.71–0.95 in rules-alone modeling. The accuracies of the models were found to be higher in the instance and rules model (0.77–0.96) compared to the rules-alone model. From the experimental analysis, it was concluded that different combinations of the nearest neighbor and committee models significantly increase the performances of CART drought models. For more robust results from the developed methodology, it is recommended that future research focus on selecting relevant attributes for slow-onset drought episode identification and prediction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Information Processes)
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Open AccessArticle On the Problem of the Existence of a Square Matrix U Such That UUT = −I over Zpm
Information 2017, 8(3), 80; doi:10.3390/info8030080
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 29 June 2017 / Accepted: 29 June 2017 / Published: 4 July 2017
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Abstract
Building-up construction is one of several methods for constructing self-dual codes. Recently, a new building-up construction method has been developed by S. Han, in which the existence of a square matrix U such that UUT=-I is essential. In
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Building-up construction is one of several methods for constructing self-dual codes. Recently, a new building-up construction method has been developed by S. Han, in which the existence of a square matrix U such that U U T = - I is essential. In this paper, we completely solve the existence problem for U over Z p m , where p is an arbitrary prime number. Full article
Open AccessArticle Protecting Touch: Authenticated App-To-Server Channels for Mobile Devices Using NFC Tags
Information 2017, 8(3), 81; doi:10.3390/info8030081
Received: 26 May 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 28 June 2017 / Published: 6 July 2017
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Abstract
Traditional authentication methods (e.g., password, PIN) often do not scale well to the context of mobile devices in terms of security and usability. However, the adoption of Near Field Communication (NFC) on a broad range of smartphones enables the use of NFC-enabled tokens
[...] Read more.
Traditional authentication methods (e.g., password, PIN) often do not scale well to the context of mobile devices in terms of security and usability. However, the adoption of Near Field Communication (NFC) on a broad range of smartphones enables the use of NFC-enabled tokens as an additional authentication factor. This additional factor can help to improve the security, as well as usability of mobile apps. In this paper, we evaluate the use of different types of existing NFC tags as tokens for establishing authenticated secure sessions between smartphone apps and web services. Based on this evaluation, we present two concepts for a user-friendly secure authentication mechanism for mobile apps, the Protecting Touch (PT) architectures. These two architectures are designed to be implemented with either end of the spectrum of inexpensive and widely-available NFC tags while maintaining a reasonable trade-off between security, availability and cost. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Vector-Circulant Matrices and Vector-Circulant Based Additive Codes over Finite Fields
Information 2017, 8(3), 82; doi:10.3390/info8030082
Received: 21 April 2017 / Revised: 6 July 2017 / Accepted: 6 July 2017 / Published: 10 July 2017
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Abstract
Circulant matrices have attracted interest due to their rich algebraic structures and various applications. In this paper, the concept of vector-circulant matrices over finite fields is studied as a generalization of circulant matrices. The algebraic characterization for such matrices has been discussed. As
[...] Read more.
Circulant matrices have attracted interest due to their rich algebraic structures and various applications. In this paper, the concept of vector-circulant matrices over finite fields is studied as a generalization of circulant matrices. The algebraic characterization for such matrices has been discussed. As applications, constructions of vector-circulant based additive codes over finite fields have been given together with some examples of optimal additive codes over F 4 . Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Information Theory and Methodology)
Open AccessArticle Hybridizing Adaptive Biogeography-Based Optimization with Differential Evolution for Multi-Objective Optimization Problems
Information 2017, 8(3), 83; doi:10.3390/info8030083
Received: 22 May 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 11 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
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Abstract
In order to improve the performance of optimization, we apply a hybridization of adaptive biogeography-based optimization (BBO) algorithm and differential evolution (DE) to multi-objective optimization problems (MOPs). A model of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) is established, in which the habitat suitability index (HSI)
[...] Read more.
In order to improve the performance of optimization, we apply a hybridization of adaptive biogeography-based optimization (BBO) algorithm and differential evolution (DE) to multi-objective optimization problems (MOPs). A model of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) is established, in which the habitat suitability index (HSI) is redefined, based on the Pareto dominance relation, and density information among the habitat individuals. Then, we design a new algorithm, in which the modification probability and mutation probability are changed, according to the relation between the cost of fitness function of randomly selected habitats of last generation, and average cost of fitness function of all habitats of last generation. The mutation operators based on DE algorithm, are modified, and the migration operators based on number of iterations, are improved to achieve better convergence performance. Numerical experiments on different ZDT and DTLZ benchmark functions are performed, and the results demonstrate that the proposed MABBO algorithm has better performance on the convergence and the distribution properties comparing to the other MOEAs, and can solve more complex multi-objective optimization problems efficiently. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Single-Valued Neutrosophic Hybrid Arithmetic and Geometric Aggregation Operators and Their Decision-Making Method
Information 2017, 8(3), 84; doi:10.3390/info8030084
Received: 25 June 2017 / Revised: 11 July 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 15 July 2017
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Abstract
Single-valued neutrosophic numbers (SVNNs) can express incomplete, indeterminate, and inconsistent information in the real world. Then, the common weighted aggregation operators of SVNNs may result in unreasonably aggregated results in some situations. Based on the hybrid weighted arithmetic and geometric aggregation and hybrid
[...] Read more.
Single-valued neutrosophic numbers (SVNNs) can express incomplete, indeterminate, and inconsistent information in the real world. Then, the common weighted aggregation operators of SVNNs may result in unreasonably aggregated results in some situations. Based on the hybrid weighted arithmetic and geometric aggregation and hybrid ordered weighted arithmetic and geometric aggregation ideas, this paper proposes SVNN hybrid weighted arithmetic and geometric aggregation (SVNNHWAGA) and SVNN hybrid ordered weighted arithmetic and geometric aggregation (SVNNHOWAGA) operators and investigates their rationality and effectiveness by numerical examples. Then, we establish a multiple-attribute decision-making method based on the SVNNHWAGA or SVNNHOWAGA operator under a SVNN environment. Finally, the multiple-attribute decision-making problem about the design schemes of punching machine is presented as a case to show the application and rationality of the proposed decision-making method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Information Theory and Methodology)
Open AccessArticle A Lightweight RFID Grouping-Proof Protocol Based on Parallel Mode and DHCP Mechanism
Information 2017, 8(3), 85; doi:10.3390/info8030085
Received: 25 May 2017 / Revised: 2 July 2017 / Accepted: 12 July 2017 / Published: 19 July 2017
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Abstract
A Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) grouping-proof protocol is to generate an evidence of the simultaneous existence of a group of tags and it has been applied to many different fields. For current grouping-proof protocols, there still exist some flaws such as low grouping-proof
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A Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) grouping-proof protocol is to generate an evidence of the simultaneous existence of a group of tags and it has been applied to many different fields. For current grouping-proof protocols, there still exist some flaws such as low grouping-proof efficiency, being vulnerable to trace attack and information leakage. To improve the secure performance and efficiency, we propose a lightweight RFID grouping-proof protocol based on parallel mode and DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) mechanism. Our protocol involves multiple readers and multiple tag groups. During the grouping-proof period, one reader and one tag group are chosen by the verifier by means of DHCP mechanism. When only a part of the tags of the chosen group exist, the protocol can also give the evidence of their co-existence. Our protocol utilizes parallel communication mode between reader and tags so as to ensure its grouping-proof efficiency. It only uses Hash function to complete the mutual authentication among verifier, readers and tags. It can preserve the privacy of the RFID system and resist the attacks such as eavesdropping, replay, trace and impersonation. Therefore the protocol is secure, flexible and efficient. It only uses some lightweight operations such as Hash function and a pseudorandom number generator. Therefore it is very suitable to some low-cost RFID systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analytical Framework for Preliminary Planning of Very High-Speed Digital Subscriber Line Access Networks
Information 2017, 8(3), 86; doi:10.3390/info8030086
Received: 25 May 2017 / Revised: 13 July 2017 / Accepted: 13 July 2017 / Published: 19 July 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, we introduce an analytical framework for the performance evaluation of the VDSL2-based access systems. It allows for the obtaining of approximations of the achievable bit rate per user, taking into account several factors, such as the bit-loading limitation per sub-carrier;
[...] Read more.
In this paper, we introduce an analytical framework for the performance evaluation of the VDSL2-based access systems. It allows for the obtaining of approximations of the achievable bit rate per user, taking into account several factors, such as the bit-loading limitation per sub-carrier; interference scenario, including the number and positions of the active interferers along the cable; crosstalk statistics; and vectoring. A closed-form expression for the maximum sub-carrier frequency that can be loaded with the maximum number of allowed bits is also presented. Formulas are obtained assuming log-normal statistics for the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) per sub-carrier. The validity of the proposed formulas has been assessed by computer calculations. A very good agreement between the exact and the approximated bit rates has been obtained. The framework can be used for preliminary design of VDSL2 systems in terms of the bit rate coverage, as well as to analyze performance of other access technologies such as ADSL and G.fast. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Information and Communications Technology)
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Open AccessArticle Efficient Listening and Sleeping Scheduling Mechanism Based on Self-Similarity for Duty Cycle Opportunistic Mobile Networks
Information 2017, 8(3), 87; doi:10.3390/info8030087
Received: 23 May 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 14 July 2017 / Published: 20 July 2017
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Abstract
In opportunistic mobile networks (OppNets), nodes should be in listening state to discover the neighbors for opportunistic message forwarding. While in OppNets, contacts between nodes are sparse, most of the node’s energy is consumed in idle listening state, which highlights the need for
[...] Read more.
In opportunistic mobile networks (OppNets), nodes should be in listening state to discover the neighbors for opportunistic message forwarding. While in OppNets, contacts between nodes are sparse, most of the node’s energy is consumed in idle listening state, which highlights the need for energy saving in contact probing. Duty cycle operation can be applied to address this problem. However, it may cause the degradation of network connectivity when the state of node is turned to be sleeping. In this paper, we propose an adaptive scheduling mechanism based on self-similarity, in which LMMSE predictor is used to predict the future contact information. The state of a node will be set as listening or sleeping adaptively according to the predicted result of future contacts with other nodes. Finally, we validate the effectiveness of the proposed mechanism by conducting a large amount of trace-driven simulations, which show that the proposed mechanism outperforms the random working mechanism and periodical working mechanism in terms of the number of effective contacts, delivery ratio, transmission delay and cost. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of VoIP QoS Performance in Wireless Mesh Networks
Information 2017, 8(3), 88; doi:10.3390/info8030088
Received: 13 June 2017 / Revised: 17 July 2017 / Accepted: 18 July 2017 / Published: 21 July 2017
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Abstract
The main focus of this research article is the evaluation of selected voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) solutions in wireless mesh network (WMN) scenarios. While WMNs have self-healing, self-forming, and dynamic topology features, they still pose challenges for the implementation of multimedia applications
[...] Read more.
The main focus of this research article is the evaluation of selected voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) solutions in wireless mesh network (WMN) scenarios. While WMNs have self-healing, self-forming, and dynamic topology features, they still pose challenges for the implementation of multimedia applications such as voice in various scenarios. Therefore, various solutions to make WMN more suitable for VoIP application have been proposed in the scientific literature. In this work, we have extensively explored a set of applicable scenarios by conducting experiments by means of a network simulator. The following scenarios were selected as the most representatives for performance evaluation: first responders, flooded village, remote village, and platoon deployment. Each selected scenario has been studied under six sub-scenarios corresponding to various combinations of the IEEE 802.11g, 802.11n, 802.11s, and 802.11e standards; the G.711 and G.729 codecs; and the ad hoc on demand distance vector (AODV) and hybrid wireless mesh protocol (HWMP) routing protocols. The results in terms of quality of service (measured with the mean opinion score rating scale), supported by the analysis of delay, jitter and packet loss, show that 802.11g integration with both VoIP codecs and AODV routing protocol results in better VoIP performance as compared to most other scenarios. In case of 802.11g integration with 802.11s, VoIP performance decreases as compared to the other sub-scenarios without 802.11s. The results also show that 802.11n integration with 802.11e decreases VoIP performance in larger deployments. We conclude the paper with some recommendations in terms of combinations of those standards and protocols with a view to achieve a higher quality of service for the given scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Information Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Fuzzy Color Clustering for Melanoma Diagnosis in Dermoscopy Images
Information 2017, 8(3), 89; doi:10.3390/info8030089
Received: 20 May 2017 / Revised: 21 July 2017 / Accepted: 21 July 2017 / Published: 25 July 2017
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Abstract
A fuzzy logic-based color histogram analysis technique is presented for discriminating benign skin lesions from malignant melanomas in dermoscopy images. The approach extends previous research for utilizing a fuzzy set for skin lesion color for a specified class of skin lesions, using alpha-cut
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A fuzzy logic-based color histogram analysis technique is presented for discriminating benign skin lesions from malignant melanomas in dermoscopy images. The approach extends previous research for utilizing a fuzzy set for skin lesion color for a specified class of skin lesions, using alpha-cut and support set cardinality for quantifying a fuzzy ratio skin lesion color feature. Skin lesion discrimination results are reported for the fuzzy clustering ratio over different regions of the lesion over a data set of 517 dermoscopy images consisting of 175 invasive melanomas and 342 benign lesions. Experimental results show that the fuzzy clustering ratio applied over an eight-connected neighborhood on the outer 25% of the skin lesion with an alpha-cut of 0.08 can recognize 92.6% of melanomas with approximately 13.5% false positive lesions. These results show the critical importance of colors in the lesion periphery. Our fuzzy logic-based description of lesion colors offers relevance to clinical descriptions of malignant melanoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fuzzy Logic for Image Processing)
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Open AccessArticle Stabilization of Discrete-Time Markovian Jump Systems by a Partially Mode-Unmatched Fault-Tolerant Controller
Information 2017, 8(3), 90; doi:10.3390/info8030090
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 19 July 2017 / Accepted: 22 July 2017 / Published: 25 July 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, a kind of fault-tolerant controller is proposed to study the stabilization problem of discrete-time Markovian jump systems, whose operation modes are not only partially-available but also unmatched. Here, such general properties of controller are modeled to be a controller having
[...] Read more.
In this paper, a kind of fault-tolerant controller is proposed to study the stabilization problem of discrete-time Markovian jump systems, whose operation modes are not only partially-available but also unmatched. Here, such general properties of controller are modeled to be a controller having polytopic forms and uncertainties simultaneously. Based on the proposed model, concise conditions for the existence of such a controller are proposed with linear matrix inequality (LMI) forms, which are extended to consider observer design problem too. Compared with the traditional methods, not only is the designed controller more general but also the established results are fault free and could be solved directly. Finally, numerical examples are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Deep Transfer Learning for Modality Classification of Medical Images
Information 2017, 8(3), 91; doi:10.3390/info8030091
Received: 7 July 2017 / Revised: 26 July 2017 / Accepted: 27 July 2017 / Published: 29 July 2017
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Abstract
Medical images are valuable for clinical diagnosis and decision making. Image modality is an important primary step, as it is capable of aiding clinicians to access required medical image in retrieval systems. Traditional methods of modality classification are dependent on the choice of
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Medical images are valuable for clinical diagnosis and decision making. Image modality is an important primary step, as it is capable of aiding clinicians to access required medical image in retrieval systems. Traditional methods of modality classification are dependent on the choice of hand-crafted features and demand a clear awareness of prior domain knowledge. The feature learning approach may detect efficiently visual characteristics of different modalities, but it is limited to the number of training datasets. To overcome the absence of labeled data, on the one hand, we take deep convolutional neural networks (VGGNet, ResNet) with different depths pre-trained on ImageNet, fix most of the earlier layers to reserve generic features of natural images, and only train their higher-level portion on ImageCLEF to learn domain-specific features of medical figures. Then, we train from scratch deep CNNs with only six weight layers to capture more domain-specific features. On the other hand, we employ two data augmentation methods to help CNNs to give the full scope to their potential characterizing image modality features. The final prediction is given by our voting system based on the outputs of three CNNs. After evaluating our proposed model on the subfigure classification task in ImageCLEF2015 and ImageCLEF2016, we obtain new, state-of-the-art results—76.87% in ImageCLEF2015 and 87.37% in ImageCLEF2016—which imply that CNNs, based on our proposed transfer learning methods and data augmentation skills, can identify more efficiently modalities of medical images. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Convolution-LSTM-Based Deep Neural Network for Cross-Domain MOOC Forum Post Classification
Information 2017, 8(3), 92; doi:10.3390/info8030092
Received: 1 June 2017 / Revised: 21 July 2017 / Accepted: 26 July 2017 / Published: 30 July 2017
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Abstract
Learners in a massive open online course often express feelings, exchange ideas and seek help by posting questions in discussion forums. Due to the very high learner-to-instructor ratios, it is unrealistic to expect instructors to adequately track the forums, find all of the
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Learners in a massive open online course often express feelings, exchange ideas and seek help by posting questions in discussion forums. Due to the very high learner-to-instructor ratios, it is unrealistic to expect instructors to adequately track the forums, find all of the issues that need resolution and understand their urgency and sentiment. In this paper, considering the biases among different courses, we propose a transfer learning framework based on a convolutional neural network and a long short-term memory model, called ConvL, to automatically identify whether a post expresses confusion, determine the urgency and classify the polarity of the sentiment. First, we learn the feature representation for each word by considering the local contextual feature via the convolution operation. Second, we learn the post representation from the features extracted through the convolution operation via the LSTM model, which considers the long-term temporal semantic relationships of features. Third, we investigate the possibility of transferring parameters from a model trained on one course to another course and the subsequent fine-tuning. Experiments on three real-world MOOC courses confirm the effectiveness of our framework. This work suggests that our model can potentially significantly increase the effectiveness of monitoring MOOC forums in real time. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Practical Point Cloud Based Road Curb Detection Method for Autonomous Vehicle
Information 2017, 8(3), 93; doi:10.3390/info8030093
Received: 22 May 2017 / Revised: 21 July 2017 / Accepted: 21 July 2017 / Published: 30 July 2017
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Abstract
Robust and quick road curb detection under various situations is critical in developing intelligent vehicles. However, the road curb detection is easily affected by the obstacles in the road area when Lidar based method is applied. A practical road curb detection method using
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Robust and quick road curb detection under various situations is critical in developing intelligent vehicles. However, the road curb detection is easily affected by the obstacles in the road area when Lidar based method is applied. A practical road curb detection method using point cloud from a three-dimensional Lidar for autonomous vehicle is reported in this paper. First, a multi-feature, loose-threshold, varied-scope ground segmentation method is presented to increase the robustness of ground segmentation with which obstacles above the ground can be detected. Second, the road curb is detected by applying the global road trend and an extraction-update mechanism. Experiments show the robustness and efficiency of the road curb detection under various environments. The road curb detection method is 10 times the speed of traditional method and the accuracy is much higher than existing methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Transportation Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Planning of Vehicle Routing with Backup Provisioning Using Wireless Sensor Technologies
Information 2017, 8(3), 94; doi:10.3390/info8030094
Received: 8 July 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 28 July 2017 / Published: 2 August 2017
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Abstract
Wireless sensor technologies can be used by intelligent transportation systems to provide innovative services that lead to improvements in road safety and congestion, increasing end-user satisfaction. In this article, we address vehicle routing with backup provisioning, where the possibility of reacting to overloading/overcrowding
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Wireless sensor technologies can be used by intelligent transportation systems to provide innovative services that lead to improvements in road safety and congestion, increasing end-user satisfaction. In this article, we address vehicle routing with backup provisioning, where the possibility of reacting to overloading/overcrowding of vehicles at certain stops is considered. This is based on the availability of vehicle load information, which can be captured using wireless sensor technologies. After discussing the infrastructure and monitoring tool, the problem is mathematically formalized, and a heuristic algorithm using local search procedures is proposed. Results show that planning routes with backup provisioning can allow fast response to overcrowding while reducing costs. Therefore, sustainable urban mobility, with efficient use of resources, can be provided while increasing the quality of service perceived by users. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Transportation Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Decentralized State-Observer-Based Traffic Density Estimation of Large-Scale Urban Freeway Network by Dynamic Model
Information 2017, 8(3), 95; doi:10.3390/info8030095
Received: 27 June 2017 / Revised: 24 July 2017 / Accepted: 31 July 2017 / Published: 3 August 2017
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Abstract
In order to estimate traffic densities in a large-scale urban freeway network in an accurate and timely fashion when traffic sensors do not cover the freeway network completely and thus only local measurement data can be utilized, this paper proposes a decentralized state
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In order to estimate traffic densities in a large-scale urban freeway network in an accurate and timely fashion when traffic sensors do not cover the freeway network completely and thus only local measurement data can be utilized, this paper proposes a decentralized state observer approach based on a macroscopic traffic flow model. Firstly, by using the well-known cell transmission model (CTM), the urban freeway network is modeled in the way of distributed systems. Secondly, based on the model, a decentralized observer is designed. With the help of the Lyapunov function and S-procedure theory, the observer gains are computed by using linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique. So, the traffic densities of the whole road network can be estimated by the designed observer. Finally, this method is applied to the outer ring of the Beijing’s second ring road and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed approach. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Content-Based Image Retrieval Scheme Using an Encrypted Difference Histogram in Cloud Computing
Information 2017, 8(3), 96; doi:10.3390/info8030096
Received: 7 June 2017 / Revised: 28 July 2017 / Accepted: 28 July 2017 / Published: 7 August 2017
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Abstract
Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) has been widely used in many applications. Large storage and computation overheads have made the outsourcing of CBIR services attractive. However, the privacy issues brought by outsourcing have become a big problem. In this paper, a secure CBIR scheme
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Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) has been widely used in many applications. Large storage and computation overheads have made the outsourcing of CBIR services attractive. However, the privacy issues brought by outsourcing have become a big problem. In this paper, a secure CBIR scheme based on an encrypted difference histogram (EDH-CBIR) is proposed. Firstly, the image owner calculates the order or disorder difference matrices of RGB components and encrypts them by value replacement and position scrambling. The encrypted images are then uploaded to the cloud server who extracts encrypted difference histograms as image feature vectors. To search similar images, the query image is encrypted by the image users as the image owner does, and the query feature vector is extracted by the cloud server. The Euclidean distance between query feature vector and image feature vector is calculated to measure the similarity. The security analysis and experiments demonstrate the usability of the proposed scheme. Full article
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Open AccessArticle An Information Theory Calculator for Understanding Information and Library Science Applications
Information 2017, 8(3), 98; doi:10.3390/info8030098
Received: 27 June 2017 / Revised: 24 July 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
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Abstract
The study of information as proposed in information theory provides a useful tool for studying many aspects of information systems, libraries, and archives. How does a calculator that computes information-theoretic functions contribute to students learning database ideas such as the relationships between various
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The study of information as proposed in information theory provides a useful tool for studying many aspects of information systems, libraries, and archives. How does a calculator that computes information-theoretic functions contribute to students learning database ideas such as the relationships between various attributes, or columns in a relational database? Understanding the relationships between variables in a professional discipline can be viewed as the core of the discipline, and these information measures are very important to the study of the organization of information. A web-based information-theoretic calculator is examined that enables students to easily and completely process various information-theoretic calculations that are useful in studying database relationships. Students were questioned after using the calculator on a homework assignment. The students’ evaluations of this form of calculator were then examined, and lastly, recommendations about using information-theoretic calculators are suggested. Recommendations are made about the use of this form of calculator in a range of academic disciplines, from computer science and business, to library and information sciences. These recommendations apply to both the academy and professional practice applications in informational domains. Full article
Open AccessArticle Physical Layer Security and Optimal Multi-Time-Slot Power Allocation of SWIPT System Powered by Hybrid Energy
Information 2017, 8(3), 100; doi:10.3390/info8030100
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 14 August 2017 / Accepted: 15 August 2017 / Published: 16 August 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, a new approach is proposed to solve the constrained optimization problem of saving grid energy and increasing safety in a simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) system. The traditional grid energy is combined with the renewable energy to form
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In this paper, a new approach is proposed to solve the constrained optimization problem of saving grid energy and increasing safety in a simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) system. The traditional grid energy is combined with the renewable energy to form a hybrid energy, which provides power for the system to achieve green wireless transmission. The transfer process of SWIPT system is divided into multiple time slots. The renewable energy is harvested and stored in battery at each time slot. A multi-time-slot artificial noise-assisted transmission strategy is proposed to reduce the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of eavesdropping link. A power allocation algorithm based on multi-time-slot golden section is given, which performs one-dimensional search on the power ratio of artificial noise to determine the transmit power of source node. And then the allocation algorithm is utilized to dynamically configure the harvested renewable energy for each time slot. When the battery capacity is constant, the maximum renewable energy is being used to reduce the grid power consumption. Finally, the performances of proposed schemes are evaluated by simulations in terms of various tradeoffs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Energy Harvesting for Future Wireless Communications)
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Open AccessArticle A Robust Timetabling Model for a Metro Line with Passenger Activity Information
Information 2017, 8(3), 102; doi:10.3390/info8030102
Received: 22 July 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 21 August 2017 / Published: 25 August 2017
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Abstract
Timetable design is crucial to the reliability of a metro service. In terms of the delays caused by passengers’ boarding and alighting behaviors during rush hours, the planned timetable for a metro line with high-frequency service tends to be difficult to implement. General
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Timetable design is crucial to the reliability of a metro service. In terms of the delays caused by passengers’ boarding and alighting behaviors during rush hours, the planned timetable for a metro line with high-frequency service tends to be difficult to implement. General oversaturation events, rather than accidents or track damage, still have a significant impact on metro systems, so that trains are canceled and delayed. When the activity reality diverges from the real-time or historical information, it is imperative that dispatchers present a good solution during the planning stage in order to minimize the nuisance for passengers and reduce the crowding risk. This paper presents a robust timetabling model (RTM) for a metro line with passenger activity information, which takes into account congestion and buffer time adjustments. The main objective pursued by dispatchers in the model is the enhancement of punctuality while minimizing train delays by adjusting the buffer time. By explicitly taking the passenger activity information into account, a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model was developed, and a genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed to solve the model. Finally, numerical experiments based on the Batong line of the Beijing Metro were carried out, the results of which verify the effectiveness and efficiency of our method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Transportation Systems)
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Open AccessArticle A Novel STDM Watermarking Using Visual Saliency-Based JND Model
Information 2017, 8(3), 103; doi:10.3390/info8030103
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 23 August 2017 / Published: 25 August 2017
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Abstract
The just noticeable distortion (JND) model plays an important role in measuring the visual visibility for spread transform dither modulation (STDM) watermarking. However, the existing JND model characterizes the suprathreshold distortions with an equal saliency level. Visual saliency (VS) has been widely studied
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The just noticeable distortion (JND) model plays an important role in measuring the visual visibility for spread transform dither modulation (STDM) watermarking. However, the existing JND model characterizes the suprathreshold distortions with an equal saliency level. Visual saliency (VS) has been widely studied by psychologists and computer scientists during the last decade, where the distortions are more likely to be noticeable to any viewer. With this consideration, we proposed a novel STDM watermarking method for a monochrome image by exploiting a visual saliency-based JND model. In our proposed JND model, a simple VS model is employed as a feature to reflect the importance of a local region and compute the final JND map. Extensive experiments performed on the classic image databases demonstrate that the proposed watermarking scheme works better in terms of the robustness than other related methods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Edge Detection Method Based on General Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Applied to Color Images
Information 2017, 8(3), 104; doi:10.3390/info8030104
Received: 1 July 2017 / Revised: 22 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
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Abstract
This paper presents a new general type-2 fuzzy logic method for edge detection applied to color format images. The proposed algorithm combines the methodology based on the image gradients and general type-2 fuzzy logic theory to provide a powerful edge detection method. General
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This paper presents a new general type-2 fuzzy logic method for edge detection applied to color format images. The proposed algorithm combines the methodology based on the image gradients and general type-2 fuzzy logic theory to provide a powerful edge detection method. General type-2 fuzzy inference systems are approximated using the α-planes approach. The edge detection method is tested on a database of color images with the idea of illustrating the advantage of applying the fuzzy edge detection approach on color images against grayscale format images, and also when the images are corrupted by noise. This paper compares the proposed method based on general type-2 fuzzy logic with other edge detection algorithms, such as ones based on type-1 and interval type-2 fuzzy systems. Simulation results show that edge detection based on a general type-2 fuzzy system outperforms the other methods because of its ability to handle the intrinsic uncertainty in this problem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fuzzy Logic for Image Processing)
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Open AccessArticle Arabic Handwritten Alphanumeric Character Recognition Using Very Deep Neural Network
Information 2017, 8(3), 105; doi:10.3390/info8030105
Received: 5 August 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 31 August 2017
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Abstract
The traditional algorithms for recognizing handwritten alphanumeric characters are dependent on hand-designed features. In recent days, deep learning techniques have brought about new breakthrough technology for pattern recognition applications, especially for handwritten recognition. However, deeper networks are needed to deliver state-of-the-art results in
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The traditional algorithms for recognizing handwritten alphanumeric characters are dependent on hand-designed features. In recent days, deep learning techniques have brought about new breakthrough technology for pattern recognition applications, especially for handwritten recognition. However, deeper networks are needed to deliver state-of-the-art results in this area. In this paper, inspired by the success of the very deep state-of-the-art VGGNet, we propose Alphanumeric VGG net for Arabic handwritten alphanumeric character recognition. Alphanumeric VGG net is constructed by thirteen convolutional layers, two max-pooling layers, and three fully-connected layers. The proposed model is fast and reliable, which improves the classification performance. Besides, this model has also reduced the overall complexity of VGGNet. We evaluated our approach on two benchmarking databases. We have achieved very promising results, with a validation accuracy of 99.66% for the ADBase database and 97.32% for the HACDB database. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Artificial Intelligence)
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Open AccessArticle An Extended VIKOR-Based Approach for Pumped Hydro Energy Storage Plant Site Selection with Heterogeneous Information
Information 2017, 8(3), 106; doi:10.3390/info8030106
Received: 28 July 2017 / Revised: 23 August 2017 / Accepted: 26 August 2017 / Published: 30 August 2017
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Abstract
The selection of a desirable site for constructing a pumped hydro energy storage plant (PHESP) plays a vital important role in the whole life cycle. However, little research has been done on the site selection of PHESP, which affects the rapid development of
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The selection of a desirable site for constructing a pumped hydro energy storage plant (PHESP) plays a vital important role in the whole life cycle. However, little research has been done on the site selection of PHESP, which affects the rapid development of PHESP. Therefore, this paper aims to select the most ideal PHESP site from numerous candidate alternatives using the multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) technique. Firstly, a comprehensive evaluation criteria system is established for the first time. Then, considering quantitative and qualitative criteria coexist in this system, multiple types of representations, including crisp numerical values (CNVs), triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (TIFNs), and 2-dimension uncertain linguistic variables (2DULVs), are employed to deal with heterogeneous criteria information. To determine the weight of criteria and fully take the preference of the decision makers (DMs) into account, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method is applied for criteria weighting. After that, an extended Vlsekriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR) method is utilized to provide compromise solutions for the PHESP site considering such heterogeneous information. At last, the proposed model is then applied in a case study of Zhejiang province, China to illustrate its practicality and efficiency. The result shows the Changlongshan should be selected as the optimal PHESP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Information Theory and Methodology)
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Open AccessArticle Bonferroni Mean Operators of Linguistic Neutrosophic Numbers and Their Multiple Attribute Group Decision-Making Methods
Information 2017, 8(3), 107; doi:10.3390/info8030107
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 31 August 2017 / Accepted: 31 August 2017 / Published: 1 September 2017
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Abstract
Linguistic neutrosophic numbers (LNN) is presented by Fang and Ye in 2017, which can describe the truth, falsity, and indeterminacy linguistic information independently. In this paper, the LNN and the Bonferroni mean operator are merged together to propose a LNN normalized weighted Bonferroni
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Linguistic neutrosophic numbers (LNN) is presented by Fang and Ye in 2017, which can describe the truth, falsity, and indeterminacy linguistic information independently. In this paper, the LNN and the Bonferroni mean operator are merged together to propose a LNN normalized weighted Bonferroni mean (LNNNWBM) operator and a LNN normalized weighted geometric Bonferroni mean (LNNNWGBM) operator and the properties of these two operators are proved. Further, multi-attribute group decision methods are introduced based on the proposed LNNNWBM and LNNNWGBM operators, and then an example is provided to demonstrate the application and validity of the proposed methods. In addition, in order to consider the effect of the parameters p and q on the decision results, different pairs of parameter values are employed to verify the decision results. Full article
Open AccessArticle Collecting Sensed Data with Opportunistic Networks: The Case of Contact Information Overhead
Information 2017, 8(3), 108; doi:10.3390/info8030108
Received: 27 July 2017 / Revised: 28 August 2017 / Accepted: 1 September 2017 / Published: 5 September 2017
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Abstract
The rising human population in urban environments drives the mission towards smart cities, which envisions a wide deployment of sensors in order to improve the quality of living. In this regard, opportunistic networks (OppNets) present an economical means of collecting delay tolerant data
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The rising human population in urban environments drives the mission towards smart cities, which envisions a wide deployment of sensors in order to improve the quality of living. In this regard, opportunistic networks (OppNets) present an economical means of collecting delay tolerant data from sensors to their respective gateways for providing various Smart City services. Due to the distributed nature of the network, encounter-based routing protocols achieve acceptable throughput by requiring nodes to exchange and update contact information on an encounter basis. Unfortunately, sufficient insight into the associated overhead is lacking in the literature. Hence, we contribute by modelling contact information overhead and investigating its impact on OppNet routing, particularly in terms of data exchange success and energy consumption on portable handheld devices. Our findings reveal that the expected contact information overhead in Smart City scenarios significantly reduces data exchange success and increases energy consumption on portable handheld devices, thereby threatening the feasibility of the technology. We address this issue by proposing an algorithm that can be incorporated into encounter-based routing protocols to reduce contact information overhead without compromising throughput. Simulation results show that our proposed algorithm reduces the average contact information overhead, increases throughput and reduces average energy consumption. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Linguistic Neutrosophic Cubic Numbers and Their Multiple Attribute Decision-Making Method
Information 2017, 8(3), 110; doi:10.3390/info8030110
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 6 September 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
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Abstract
To describe both certain linguistic neutrosophic information and uncertain linguistic neutrosophic information simultaneously in the real world, this paper originally proposes the concept of a linguistic neutrosophic cubic number (LNCN), including an internal LNCN and external LNCN. In LNCN, its uncertain linguistic neutrosophic
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To describe both certain linguistic neutrosophic information and uncertain linguistic neutrosophic information simultaneously in the real world, this paper originally proposes the concept of a linguistic neutrosophic cubic number (LNCN), including an internal LNCN and external LNCN. In LNCN, its uncertain linguistic neutrosophic number consists of the truth, indeterminacy, and falsity uncertain linguistic variables, and its linguistic neutrosophic number consists of the truth, indeterminacy, and falsity linguistic variables to express their hybrid information. Then, we present the operational laws of LNCNs and the score, accuracy, and certain functions of LNCN for comparing/ranking LNCNs. Next, we propose a LNCN weighted arithmetic averaging (LNCNWAA) operator and a LNCN weighted geometric averaging (LNCNWGA) operator to aggregate linguistic neutrosophic cubic information and discuss their properties. Further, a multiple attribute decision-making method based on the LNCNWAA or LNCNWGA operator is developed under a linguistic neutrosophic cubic environment. Finally, an illustrative example is provided to indicate the application of the developed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neutrosophic Information Theory and Applications)
Open AccessArticle Cooperative Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access with Energy Harvesting
Information 2017, 8(3), 111; doi:10.3390/info8030111
Received: 17 July 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 12 September 2017 / Published: 14 September 2017
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Abstract
In this paper, we analyze the outage probability of an amplify-and-forward (AF) cooperative non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) model in multi-relay multiuser networks. In contrast to conventional cooperative networks, relays in the considered network have no embedded energy supply; they need to rely on
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In this paper, we analyze the outage probability of an amplify-and-forward (AF) cooperative non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) model in multi-relay multiuser networks. In contrast to conventional cooperative networks, relays in the considered network have no embedded energy supply; they need to rely on the energy harvested from the signals broadcasted by the source for their cooperative NOMA transmission. Based on this structure, a new relay selection scheme is proposed, considering both channel state information (CSI) and battery status of relays. Assuming each relay has infinite or finite energy storage for accumulating energy, we use the infinite or finite Markov chain to capture the evolution of relay batteries and certain simplified assumptions to reduce computational complexity of the Markov chain analysis. The approximate closed-form expressions for the outage probability of the proposed scheme are derived therefrom. All theoretical results are validated by numerical simulations. The impacts of the system parameters, such as relay number, energy harvesting threshold and battery size, on the performance are extensively investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Information and Communications Technology)
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Open AccessArticle Volume Shocks around Announcements in the Chinese Stock Market: An Ex-Post Earnings-Information-Based Study of Speculative Behavior
Information 2017, 8(3), 112; doi:10.3390/info8030112
Received: 7 July 2017 / Revised: 3 September 2017 / Accepted: 8 September 2017 / Published: 14 September 2017
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Abstract
The Second Board Market is typical stock market for high tech companies in China. This paper discusses the relationship between trading volume and price changes in the case of high-tech listed companies in the Chinese Second-Board Stock Market. By using the basic concepts
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The Second Board Market is typical stock market for high tech companies in China. This paper discusses the relationship between trading volume and price changes in the case of high-tech listed companies in the Chinese Second-Board Stock Market. By using the basic concepts proposed by Kim and Verrecchia, and Kandel and Pearson, and contrasting them with ex-post information from earnings releases, the paper provides findings on the speculative behavior of informed traders with a volume shock premium. The paper suggests that these methods may be further applied to investigating investors’ behavior in speculation, especially for the high-tech-company-based Second-Board Stock Market during announcement periods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of T-Norms and S-Norms for Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Numbers in Weight Adjustment for Neural Networks
Information 2017, 8(3), 114; doi:10.3390/info8030114
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 12 September 2017 / Accepted: 18 September 2017 / Published: 20 September 2017
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Abstract
A comparison of different T-norms and S-norms for interval type-2 fuzzy number weights is proposed in this work. The interval type-2 fuzzy number weights are used in a neural network with an interval backpropagation learning enhanced method for weight adjustment. Results of experiments
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A comparison of different T-norms and S-norms for interval type-2 fuzzy number weights is proposed in this work. The interval type-2 fuzzy number weights are used in a neural network with an interval backpropagation learning enhanced method for weight adjustment. Results of experiments and a comparative research between traditional neural networks and the neural network with interval type-2 fuzzy number weights with different T-norms and S-norms are presented to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed approach. In this research, the definitions of the lower and upper interval type-2 fuzzy numbers with random initial values are presented; this interval represents the footprint of uncertainty (FOU). The proposed work is based on recent works that have considered the adaptation of weights using type-2 fuzzy numbers. To confirm the efficiency of the proposed method, a case of data prediction is applied, in particular for the Mackey-Glass time series (for τ = 17). Noise of Gaussian type was applied to the testing data of the Mackey-Glass time series to demonstrate that the neural network using a interval type-2 fuzzy numbers method achieves a lower susceptibility to noise than other methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Artificial Intelligence)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Review of Recent Type-2 Fuzzy Image Processing Applications
Information 2017, 8(3), 97; doi:10.3390/info8030097
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 5 August 2017 / Accepted: 8 August 2017 / Published: 10 August 2017
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Abstract
This paper presents a literature review of applications using type-2 fuzzy systems in the area of image processing. Over the last years, there has been a significant increase in research on higher-order forms of fuzzy logic; in particular, the use of interval type-2
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This paper presents a literature review of applications using type-2 fuzzy systems in the area of image processing. Over the last years, there has been a significant increase in research on higher-order forms of fuzzy logic; in particular, the use of interval type-2 fuzzy sets and general type-2 fuzzy sets. The idea of making use of higher orders, or types, of fuzzy logic is to capture and represent uncertainty that is more complex. This paper is focused on image processing systems, which includes image segmentation, image filtering, image classification and edge detection. Various applications are presented where general type-2 fuzzy sets, interval type-2 fuzzy sets, and interval-value fuzzy sets are used; some are compared with the traditional type-1 fuzzy sets and others methodologies that exist in the literature for these areas in image processing. In all accounts, it is shown that type-2 fuzzy sets outperform both traditional image processing techniques as well as techniques using type-1 fuzzy sets, and provide the ability to handle uncertainty when the image is corrupted by noise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fuzzy Logic for Image Processing)
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Open AccessReview An Adaptive Traffic Signal Control in a Connected Vehicle Environment: A Systematic Review
Information 2017, 8(3), 101; doi:10.3390/info8030101
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 22 August 2017 / Accepted: 22 August 2017 / Published: 24 August 2017
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Abstract
In the last few years, traffic congestion has become a growing concern due to increasing vehicle ownerships in urban areas. Intersections are one of the major bottlenecks that contribute to urban traffic congestion. Traditional traffic signal control systems cannot adjust the timing pattern
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In the last few years, traffic congestion has become a growing concern due to increasing vehicle ownerships in urban areas. Intersections are one of the major bottlenecks that contribute to urban traffic congestion. Traditional traffic signal control systems cannot adjust the timing pattern depending on road traffic demand. This results in excessive delays for road users. Adaptive traffic signal control in a connected vehicle environment has shown a powerful ability to effectively alleviate urban traffic congestions to achieve desirable objectives (e.g., delay minimization). Connected vehicle technology, as an emerging technology, is a mobile data platform that enables the real-time data exchange among vehicles and between vehicles and infrastructure. Although several reviews about traffic signal control or connected vehicles have been written, a systemic review of adaptive traffic signal control in a connected vehicle environment has not been made. Twenty-six eligible studies searched from six databases constitute the review. A quality evaluation was established based on previous research instruments and applied to the current review. The purpose of this paper is to critically review the existing methods of adaptive traffic signal control in a connected vehicle environment and to compare the advantages or disadvantages of those methods. Further, a systematic framework on connected vehicle based adaptive traffic signal control is summarized to support the future research. Future research is needed to develop more efficient and generic adaptive traffic signal control methods in a connected vehicle environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Transportation Systems)
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Open AccessReview Frequent Releases in Open Source Software: A Systematic Review
Information 2017, 8(3), 109; doi:10.3390/info8030109
Received: 26 June 2017 / Revised: 12 August 2017 / Accepted: 31 August 2017 / Published: 5 September 2017
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Abstract
Context: The need to accelerate software delivery, supporting faster time-to-market and frequent community developer/user feedback are issues that have led to relevant changes in software development practices. One example is the adoption of Rapid Release (RR) by several Open Source Software projects (OSS).
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Context: The need to accelerate software delivery, supporting faster time-to-market and frequent community developer/user feedback are issues that have led to relevant changes in software development practices. One example is the adoption of Rapid Release (RR) by several Open Source Software projects (OSS). This raises the need to know how these projects deal with software release approaches. Goal: Identify the main characteristics of software release initiatives in OSS projects, the motivations behind their adoption, strategies applied, as well as advantages and difficulties found. Method: We conducted a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) to reach the stated goal. Results: The SLR includes 33 publications from January 2006 to July 2016 and reveals nine advantages that characterize software release approaches in OSS projects; four challenge issues; three possibilities of implementation and two main motivations towards the adoption of RR; and finally four main strategies to implement it. Conclusion: This study provides an up-to-date and structured understanding of the software release approaches in the context of OSS projects based on findings systematically collected from a list of relevant references in the last decade. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Information Technology: New Generations (ITNG 2017))
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