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Biosensors, Volume 1, Issue 2 (June 2011), Pages 36-69

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Research

Open AccessArticle Monitoring the Effect of Metal Ions on the Mobility of Artemia salina Nauplii
Biosensors 2011, 1(2), 36-45; doi:10.3390/bios1020036
Received: 9 February 2011 / Revised: 8 March 2011 / Accepted: 22 March 2011 / Published: 28 March 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (383 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study aims to measure the effect of toxic aqueous solutions of metals on the mobility of Artemia salina nauplii by using digital image processing. The instrument consists of a camera with a macro lens, a dark chamber, a light source and a
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This study aims to measure the effect of toxic aqueous solutions of metals on the mobility of Artemia salina nauplii by using digital image processing. The instrument consists of a camera with a macro lens, a dark chamber, a light source and a laptop computer. Four nauplii were inserted into a macro cuvette, which contained copper, cadmium, iron and zinc ions at various concentrations. The nauplii were then filmed inside the dark chamber for two minutes and the video sequence was processed by a motion tracking algorithm that estimated their mobility. The results obtained by this system were compared to the mortality assay of the Artemia salina nauplii. Despite the small number of tested organisms, this system demonstrates great sensitivity in quantifying the mobility of the nauplii, which leads to significantly lower EC50 values than those of the mortality assay. Furthermore, concentrations of parts per trillion of toxic compounds could be detected for some of the metals. The main novelty of this instrument relies in the sub-pixel accuracy of the tracking algorithm that enables robust measurement of the deterioration of the mobility of Artemia salina even at very low concentrations of toxic metals. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Nonlinear Impedance of Whole Cells Near an Electrode as a Probe of Mitochondrial Activity
Biosensors 2011, 1(2), 46-57; doi:10.3390/bios1020046
Received: 3 March 2011 / Revised: 25 March 2011 / Accepted: 7 April 2011 / Published: 11 April 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (509 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
By simultaneously measuring the bulk media and electrode interface voltages of a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) suspension subjected to an AC voltage, a yeast-dependent nonlinear response was found only near the current injection electrodes. Computer simulation of yeast near a current injection
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By simultaneously measuring the bulk media and electrode interface voltages of a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) suspension subjected to an AC voltage, a yeast-dependent nonlinear response was found only near the current injection electrodes. Computer simulation of yeast near a current injection electrode found an enhanced voltage drop across the yeast near the electrode due to slowed charging of the electrode interfacial capacitance. This voltage drop is sufficient to induce conformation change in membrane proteins. Disruption of the mitochondrial electron transport chain is found to significantly change the measured nonlinear current response, suggesting nonlinear impedance can be used as a non-invasive probe of cellular metabolic activity. Full article
Open AccessArticle Kinetic ELISA in Microfluidic Channels
Biosensors 2011, 1(2), 58-69; doi:10.3390/bios1020058
Received: 26 April 2011 / Revised: 26 May 2011 / Accepted: 15 June 2011 / Published: 17 June 2011
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (422 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this article, we describe the kinetic ELISA of Blue Tongue and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease viral antibodies in microfluidic channels by monitoring the rate of generation of the enzyme reaction product under static conditions. It has been shown that this format of the
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In this article, we describe the kinetic ELISA of Blue Tongue and Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease viral antibodies in microfluidic channels by monitoring the rate of generation of the enzyme reaction product under static conditions. It has been shown that this format of the immunoassay allows very reliable quantitation of the target species using inexpensive glass microchips and a standard epifluorescence microscope system coupled to a CCD camera. For the viral antibodies assayed here, the limit of detection (LOD) for the analyte concentration in our microchips was established to be 3–5 times lower than that obtained on commercial microwell plates using a fiftieth of the sample volume and less than a third of the incubation time. Our analyses further show that when compared to the end-point ELISA format, the kinetic mode of this assay yields an improvement in the LOD by over an order of magnitude in microfluidic devices. This benefit is primarily realized as the observed variation in the background fluorescence (signal at the start of the enzyme reaction period) was significantly larger than that in the rate of signal generation upon repeating these assays in different microchannels/microchips. Because the kinetic ELISA results depend only on the latter quantity, the noise level in them was substantially lower compared to that in its end-point counterpart in which the absolute fluorescence measurements are of greater significance. While a similar benefit was also recorded through implementation of kinetic ELISAs on the microwell platform, the improvement in LOD registered in that system was not as significant as was observed in the case of microfluidic assays. Full article
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