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Electronics 2013, 2(1), 1-34; doi:10.3390/electronics2010001
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Implantable Devices: Issues and Challenges

 and
*
Electronic Materials Research Lab, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville 4811, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 October 2012 / Revised: 19 November 2012 / Accepted: 7 December 2012 / Published: 21 December 2012
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Abstract

Ageing population and a multitude of neurological and cardiovascular illnesses that cannot be mitigated by medication alone have resulted in a significant growth in the number of patients that require implantable electronic devices. These range from sensors, gastric and cardiac pacemakers, cardioverter defibrillators, to deep brain, nerve, and bone stimulators. Long-term implants present specific engineering challenges, including low energy consumption and stable performance. Resorbable electronics may offer excellent short-term performance without the need for surgical removal. However, most electronic materials have poor bio- and cytocompatibility, resulting in immune reactions and infections. This paper reviews the current situation and highlights challenges for future advancements.
Keywords: implantable electronic device; bioresorbable electronics; radio-frequency (RF) wireless powering; encapsulation implantable electronic device; bioresorbable electronics; radio-frequency (RF) wireless powering; encapsulation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Bazaka, K.; Jacob, M.V. Implantable Devices: Issues and Challenges. Electronics 2013, 2, 1-34.

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