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Electronics, Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2013), Pages 192-331

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Photovoltaic System Equipped with Digital Command Control and Acquisition
Electronics 2013, 2(3), 192-211; doi:10.3390/electronics2030192
Received: 15 April 2013 / Revised: 30 June 2013 / Accepted: 1 July 2013 / Published: 17 July 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (664 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we present results concerning the design, the realization and the characterization of a photovoltaic system (PV), equipped with a digital controls: Power Point Tracking (MPPT), charge/discharge lead acid batteries, sun tracker and supervision. These different functions are performed with a
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In this paper, we present results concerning the design, the realization and the characterization of a photovoltaic system (PV), equipped with a digital controls: Power Point Tracking (MPPT), charge/discharge lead acid batteries, sun tracker and supervision. These different functions are performed with a microcontroller that has capabilities and functions to the reliability of PV systems (signal generation Pulses Width Modulation (PWM), speed etc.). Concerning the MPPT control operation, we improved the accuracy and reliability of research by improving the search algorithm “Hill Climbing” taking into account the optimal operation of PV panels depending on weather conditions (temperature and light).The experiment of each block shows that the MPPT control converges instantly the operating point of the PV panels around the maximum power point, independently of sudden changes of the illumination or the load. The control blocks charge/discharge battery and sun tracking show good control of charge/discharge lead acid batteries and the need of sun tracker to increase the power supplied by the PV panel. By using the improved MPPT control, loss of power supplied by the PV panels are very low (below 5%). Full article
Open AccessArticle Redundancy + Reconfigurability = Recoverability
Electronics 2013, 2(3), 212-233; doi:10.3390/electronics2030212
Received: 6 May 2013 / Revised: 8 July 2013 / Accepted: 10 July 2013 / Published: 23 July 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1171 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An approach to consider computers and connected computer systems using structural, time, and information redundancies is proposed. An application of redundancy for reconfigurability and recoverability of computers and connected computer systems is discussed, gaining performance, reliability, and power-saving in operation. A paradigm of
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An approach to consider computers and connected computer systems using structural, time, and information redundancies is proposed. An application of redundancy for reconfigurability and recoverability of computers and connected computer systems is discussed, gaining performance, reliability, and power-saving in operation. A paradigm of recoverability is introduced and, if followed, shifts connected computer systems toward real-time applications. Use of redundancy for connected computers is analysed in terms of recoverability, where two supportive algorithms of forward and backward tracing are proposed and explained. As an example, growth of mission reliability is formulated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fault-Tolerant Routing)
Open AccessArticle Modeling Radiation-Induced Degradation in Top-Gated Epitaxial Graphene Field-Effect-Transistors (FETs)
Electronics 2013, 2(3), 234-245; doi:10.3390/electronics2030234
Received: 28 March 2013 / Revised: 30 June 2013 / Accepted: 10 July 2013 / Published: 24 July 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (790 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper investigates total ionizing dose (TID) effects in top-gated epitaxial graphene field-effect-transistors (GFETs). Measurements reveal voltage shifts in the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and degradation of carrier mobility and minimum conductivity, consistent with the buildup of oxide-trapped charges. A
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This paper investigates total ionizing dose (TID) effects in top-gated epitaxial graphene field-effect-transistors (GFETs). Measurements reveal voltage shifts in the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and degradation of carrier mobility and minimum conductivity, consistent with the buildup of oxide-trapped charges. A semi-empirical approach for modeling radiation-induced degradation in GFETs effective carrier mobility is described in the paper. The modeling approach describes Coulomb and short-range scattering based on calculations of charge and effective vertical field that incorporate radiation-induced oxide trapped charges. The transition from the dominant scattering mechanism is correctly described as a function of effective field and oxide trapped charge density. Comparison with experimental data results in good qualitative agreement when including an empirical component to account for scatterer transparency in the low field regime. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanoelectronics)
Open AccessArticle A Simulative Study on Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) as a Control Tool for Practitioners
Electronics 2013, 2(3), 246-279; doi:10.3390/electronics2030246
Received: 20 May 2013 / Revised: 27 June 2013 / Accepted: 22 July 2013 / Published: 15 August 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (1570 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As an alternative to both classical PID-type and modern model-based approaches to solving control problems, active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) has gained significant traction in recent years. With its simple tuning method and robustness against process parameter variations, it puts itself forward as
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As an alternative to both classical PID-type and modern model-based approaches to solving control problems, active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) has gained significant traction in recent years. With its simple tuning method and robustness against process parameter variations, it puts itself forward as a valuable addition to the toolbox of control engineering practitioners. This article aims at providing a single-source introduction and reference to linear ADRC with this audience in mind. A simulative study is carried out using generic first- and second-order plants to enable a quick visual assessment of the abilities of ADRC. Finally, a modified form of the discrete-time case is introduced to speed up real-time implementations as necessary in applications with high dynamic requirements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
Open AccessArticle Current-Perpendicular-to-Plane Magnetoresistance in Chemical Vapor Deposition-Grown Multilayer Graphene
Electronics 2013, 2(3), 315-331; doi:10.3390/electronics2030315
Received: 13 June 2013 / Revised: 13 August 2013 / Accepted: 16 August 2013 / Published: 11 September 2013
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (841 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Current-perpendicular-to-plane (CPP) magnetoresistance (MR) effects are often exploited in various state-of-the-art magnetic field sensing and data storage technologies. Most of the CPP-MR devices are artificial layered structures of ferromagnets and non-magnets, and in these devices, MR manifests, due to spin-dependent carrier transmission through
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Current-perpendicular-to-plane (CPP) magnetoresistance (MR) effects are often exploited in various state-of-the-art magnetic field sensing and data storage technologies. Most of the CPP-MR devices are artificial layered structures of ferromagnets and non-magnets, and in these devices, MR manifests, due to spin-dependent carrier transmission through the constituent layers. In this work, we explore another class of artificial layered structure in which multilayer graphene (MLG) is grown on a metallic substrate by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). We show that depending on the nature of the graphene-metal interaction, these devices can also exhibit large CPP-MR. Magnetoresistance ratios (>100%) are at least two orders of magnitude higher than “transferred” graphene and graphitic samples reported in the literature, for a comparable temperature and magnetic field range. This effect is unrelated to spin injection and transport and is not adequately described by any of the MR mechanisms known to date. The simple fabrication process, large magnitude of the MR and its persistence at room temperature make this system an attractive candidate for magnetic field sensing and data storage applications and, also, underscore the need for further fundamental investigations on graphene-metal interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanoelectronics)

Review

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Open AccessReview Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene Nanoribbons: Potentials for Nanoscale Electrical Interconnects
Electronics 2013, 2(3), 280-314; doi:10.3390/electronics2030280
Received: 22 May 2013 / Revised: 8 August 2013 / Accepted: 14 August 2013 / Published: 28 August 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (9730 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon allotropes have generated much interest among different scientific communities due to their peculiar properties and potential applications in a variety of fields. Carbon nanotubes and more recently graphene have shown very interesting electrical properties along with the possibility of being grown and/or
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Carbon allotropes have generated much interest among different scientific communities due to their peculiar properties and potential applications in a variety of fields. Carbon nanotubes and more recently graphene have shown very interesting electrical properties along with the possibility of being grown and/or deposited at a desired location. In this Review, we will focus our attention on carbon-based nanostructures (in particular, carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons) which could play an important role in the technological quest to replace copper/low-k for interconnect applications. We will provide the reader with a number of possible architectures, including single-wall as well as multi-wall carbon nanotubes, arranged in horizontal and vertical arrays, regarded as individual objects as well as bundles. Modification of their functional properties in order to fulfill interconnect applications requirements are also presented. Then, in the second part of the Review, recently discovered graphene and in particular graphene and few-graphene layers nanoribbons are introduced. Different architectures involving nanostructured carbon are presented and discussed in light of interconnect application in terms of length, chirality, edge configuration and more. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Nanoelectronics)
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