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Sci. Pharm., Volume 84, Issue 4 (December 2016), Pages 585-753

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Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Suitability of Root and Rhizome Anatomy for Taxonomic Classification and Reconstruction of Phylogenetic Relationships in the Tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae (Asteraceae)
Sci. Pharm. 2016, 84(4), 585-602; doi:10.3390/scipharm84040585
Received: 18 August 2015 / Accepted: 27 May 2016 / Published: 27 May 2016
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Abstract
The value of root and rhizome anatomy for the taxonomic characterisation of 59 species classified into 34 genera and 12 subtribes from the Asteraceae tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae was assessed. In addition, the evolutionary history of anatomical characters was reconstructed using a nuclear
[...] Read more.
The value of root and rhizome anatomy for the taxonomic characterisation of 59 species classified into 34 genera and 12 subtribes from the Asteraceae tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae was assessed. In addition, the evolutionary history of anatomical characters was reconstructed using a nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence-based phylogeny of the Cichorieae. Taxa were selected with a focus on pharmaceutically relevant species. A binary decision tree was constructed and discriminant function analyses were performed to extract taxonomically relevant anatomical characters and to infer the separability of infratribal taxa, respectively. The binary decision tree distinguished 33 species and two subspecies, but only five of the genera (sampled for at least two species) by a unique combination of hierarchically arranged characters. Accessions were discriminated—except for one sample worthy of discussion—according to their subtribal affiliation in the discriminant function analyses (DFA). However, constantly expressed subtribe-specific characters were almost missing and even in combination, did not discriminate the subtribes. Most anatomical characters showed at least some degree of homoplasious evolution limiting their suitability as phylogenetically informative characters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chitosan-Montmorillonite Polymer Composites: Formulation and Evaluation of Sustained Release Tablets of Aceclofenac
Sci. Pharm. 2016, 84(4), 603-617; doi:10.3390/scipharm84040603
Received: 4 February 2015 / Accepted: 22 October 2015 / Published: 22 October 2015
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Abstract
The present study reports the preparation and evaluation of polymer composites of chitosan and montmorillonite. The prepared polymer composites were evaluated for various powder properties and characterized by FTIR-ATR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy- Attenuated Total Reflectance), XRD (X Ray Diffraction), and SEM (Scaning
[...] Read more.
The present study reports the preparation and evaluation of polymer composites of chitosan and montmorillonite. The prepared polymer composites were evaluated for various powder properties and characterized by FTIR-ATR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy- Attenuated Total Reflectance), XRD (X Ray Diffraction), and SEM (Scaning Electron Microscopy) techniques. Heckel and Kawakita equations indicated good compression characteristics of the composites. The polymer composites were employed in formulating sustained release tablets of aceclofenac. The formation of intercalated lamellar structures due to the entrapment of clay particles in the polymeric matrix network was found to be responsible for the drug release retardant behavior of the composites. The in vitro drug release data were fitted to various models like zero-order, first-order, Higuchi, Korsmeyer-Peppas, and Hixon and Crowell for studying the mechanism of drug release from the formulation. The value of release exponent (n) was found to range between 0.59 and 0.82, indicating non-Fickian (anomalous) drug release behavior. Swelling-induced diffusion of the drug through the polymer matrix and polymer matrix chain relaxation appeared to play a role in the release of the drug from the polymer composites. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Orphan Drug Pricing: An Original Exponential Model Relating Price to the Number of Patients
Sci. Pharm. 2016, 84(4), 618-624; doi:10.3390/scipharm84040618
Received: 26 September 2015 / Accepted: 24 January 2016 / Published: 24 January 2016
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Abstract
In managing drug prices at the national level, orphan drugs represent a special case because the price of these agents is higher than that determined according to value-based principles. A common practice is to set the orphan drug price in an inverse relationship
[...] Read more.
In managing drug prices at the national level, orphan drugs represent a special case because the price of these agents is higher than that determined according to value-based principles. A common practice is to set the orphan drug price in an inverse relationship with the number of patients, so that the price increases as the number of patients decreases. Determination of prices in this context generally has a purely empirical nature, but a theoretical basis would be needed. The present paper describes an original exponential model that manages the relationship between price and number of patients for orphan drugs. Three real examples are analysed in detail (eculizumab, bosentan, and a data set of 17 orphan drugs published in 2010). These analyses have been aimed at identifying some objective criteria to rationally inform this relationship between prices and patients and at converting these criteria into explicit quantitative rules. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Aromatic Substitution of Curcumin Nanoformulations on Their Stability
Sci. Pharm. 2016, 84(4), 625-633; doi:10.3390/scipharm84040625
Received: 22 February 2016 / Accepted: 31 March 2016 / Published: 19 April 2016
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Abstract
Curcumin, a poorly water-soluble bioactive compound, was successfully loaded into three different aromatic contents of hydroxypropylmethacrylamide (HPMA)-based polymeric micelles in order to develop water-soluble curcumin nanoformulations (Cur-Nano). The stability study of Cur-Nano was done by keeping the formulations at 4, 30, and 40
[...] Read more.
Curcumin, a poorly water-soluble bioactive compound, was successfully loaded into three different aromatic contents of hydroxypropylmethacrylamide (HPMA)-based polymeric micelles in order to develop water-soluble curcumin nanoformulations (Cur-Nano). The stability study of Cur-Nano was done by keeping the formulations at 4, 30, and 40 °C for 90 days. The physical appearance, curcumin remaining, and particle size of Cur-Nano were examined by visual inspection, high-performance liquid chromatography, and dynamic light scattering, respectively. After the storage period, the Cur-Nano composed of 100% aromatic-substituted polymer exhibited the highest stability of curcumin (80% of curcumin remaining) with a similar particle size as measured on the first day (50–60 nm) in all storage conditions. Curcumin in Cur-Nano composed of 25% and 0% aromatic-substituted polymer was significantly less stable accordingly. The results suggested that aromatic substitution to HPMA-based polymeric micelles can significantly enhance the stability of the loaded curcumin, considerably due to the π-π stacking interactions between the aromatic groups of curcumin and the polymer. It is concluded that curcumin-loaded polymeric micelles with high substituted aromatic content can be promising candidates with good storage stability for further clinical evaluations. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Formulation, Characterisation, and in Vitro Skin Diffusion of Nanostructured Lipid Carriers for Deoxyarbutin Compared to a Nanoemulsion and Conventional Cream
Sci. Pharm. 2016, 84(4), 634-645; doi:10.3390/scipharm84040634
Received: 14 April 2016 / Accepted: 12 July 2016 / Published: 20 July 2016
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Abstract
The long-term use of topical hydroquinone as an anti-hyperpigmentation treatment has well-known, unwanted effects. Deoxyarbutin (4-[(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)oxy]phenol) is a relatively new tyrosinase inhibitor, with stronger inhibitory potency than hydroquinone, that exhibited decreased cytotoxicity against melanocytes and other cells. This study developed novel nanostructured lipid
[...] Read more.
The long-term use of topical hydroquinone as an anti-hyperpigmentation treatment has well-known, unwanted effects. Deoxyarbutin (4-[(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)oxy]phenol) is a relatively new tyrosinase inhibitor, with stronger inhibitory potency than hydroquinone, that exhibited decreased cytotoxicity against melanocytes and other cells. This study developed novel nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for improved topical delivery of deoxyarbutin (dArb), leading to improved depigmenting efficacy. dArb is a hydrophobic substance, but it easily degrades in aqueous medium and is thermolabile. Screening and optimisation of the solid lipid, liquid lipid, surfactant, co-surfactant and production methods were performed to choose the optimum particle size and stability for NLCs. One percent dArb NLCs were obtained from a combination of cetyl palmitate (CP) and caprylic/capric tryglicerides (Myr) in 12% total lipids using poloxamer 188 (P-188) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 as a surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively, with a particle diameter of approximately 500 nm and a polydispersity index (PI) <0.4. These NLCs were produced using the simple method of high-shear homogenisation (10,000 rpm, 5 minutes) and ultrasonication (3.5 min). The compatibility between the substances in the formula was evaluated using Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The morphology of the NLCs was observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In vitro penetration of dArb NLCs was evaluated and compared to the nanoemulsion (NE) and conventional emulsion (CR) delivery methods across Spangler’s membrane (SS). Delivery improvement was clearly observed, and after 8 h of application, dArb gel-NLCs showed the highest dArb penetration, followed by liquid NLCs, NE, and CR. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Certain Pharmaceutical Quality Attributes of Lisinopril Split Tablets
Sci. Pharm. 2016, 84(4), 646-653; doi:10.3390/scipharm84040646
Received: 10 March 2016 / Accepted: 28 July 2016 / Published: 11 October 2016
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Abstract
Tablet splitting is an accepted practice for the administration of drugs for a variety of reasons, including dose adjustment, ease of swallowing and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of lisinopril tablets as a result of
[...] Read more.
Tablet splitting is an accepted practice for the administration of drugs for a variety of reasons, including dose adjustment, ease of swallowing and cost savings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of lisinopril tablets as a result of splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitting device. The impact of the splitting technique of lisinopril (Zestril® tablets, 20 mg) on certain physical parameters such as weight variation, friability, disintegration, dissolution and drug content were studied. Splitting the tablets either by hand or with a splitter resulted in a minute but statistically significant average weight loss of <0.25% of the tablet to the surrounding environment. The variability in the weight of the hand-split tablet halves was more pronounced (37 out of 40 tablet halves varied by more than 10% from the mean weight) than when using the tablet splitter (3 out of 40 tablet halves). The dissolution and drug content of the hand-split tablets were therefore affected because of weight differences. However, the pharmacopoeia requirements for friability and disintegration time were met. Hand splitting of tablets can result in an inaccurate dose and may present clinical safety issues, especially for drugs with a narrow therapeutic window in which large fluctuations in drug concentrations are undesirable. It is recommended to use tablets with the exact desired dose, but if this is not an option, then a tablet splitter could be used. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Development and Validation of Miglitol and Its Impurities by RP-HPLC and Characterization Using Mass Spectrometry Techniques
Sci. Pharm. 2016, 84(4), 654-670; doi:10.3390/scipharm84040654
Received: 23 April 2016 / Accepted: 11 August 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
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Abstract
Alpha glucoside inhibitors used to treat type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are likely to be safe and effective. These agents are most effective for postprandial hyperglycemia. Miglitol is a type of drug used to treat type-2 DM. A simple, selective, linear, precise and accurate
[...] Read more.
Alpha glucoside inhibitors used to treat type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are likely to be safe and effective. These agents are most effective for postprandial hyperglycemia. Miglitol is a type of drug used to treat type-2 DM. A simple, selective, linear, precise and accurate reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed and validated for a related substance of miglitol and its identification, and characterization was done by different mass spectrometry techniques. The gradient method at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min was employed on a prevail carbohydrate ES column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm particle size) at a temperature of 35 °C. Mobile phase A consisted of 10 mM dipotassium hydrogen orthophosphate adjusted to pH 8.0 using concentrated phosphoric acid and mobile phase B consisted of acetonitrile. The ultraviolet detection wavelength was 210 nm and 20 μL of the sample were injected. The retention time for miglitol was about 24.0 min. Forced degradation of the miglitol sample was conducted in accordance with the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines. Acidic, basic, neutral, and oxidative hydrolysis, thermal stress, and photolytic degradation were used to assess the stability-indicating the power of the method. Substantial degradation was observed during oxidative hydrolysis. No degradation was observed under the other stress conditions. The method was optimized using samples generated by forced degradation and sample solutions spiked with impurities and epimers. Good resolution of the analyte peak from peaks, corresponding to process-related impurities, epimers and degradation products, was achieved and the method was validated as per the ICH guidelines. The method can successfully be applied for routine analysis of miglitol. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analytical Enantio-Separation of Linagliptin in Linagliptin and Metformin HCl Dosage Forms by Applying Two-Level Factorial Design
Sci. Pharm. 2016, 84(4), 671-684; doi:10.3390/scipharm84040671
Received: 28 June 2016 / Accepted: 3 August 2016 / Published: 17 October 2016
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Abstract
A novel, stability indicating, reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed to determine the S-isomer of linagliptin (LGP) in linagliptin and metformin hydrochloride (MET HCl) tablets (LGP–MET HCl) by implementing design of experiment (DoE), i.e., two-level, full factorial design (2
[...] Read more.
A novel, stability indicating, reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed to determine the S-isomer of linagliptin (LGP) in linagliptin and metformin hydrochloride (MET HCl) tablets (LGP–MET HCl) by implementing design of experiment (DoE), i.e., two-level, full factorial design (23 + 3 centre points = 11 experiments) to understand the critical method parameters (CMP) and its relation with the critical method attribute (CMA), and to ensure robustness of the method. The separation of the S-isomer, LGP and MET HCl in the presence of their impurities was achieved on Chiralpak® IA-3 (Amylose tris (3, 5-dimethylphenylcarbamate), immobilized on 3 µm silica gel) stationary phase (250 × 4.6 mm, 3 µm) using isocratic elution and detector wavelength at 225 nm with a flow rate of 0.5 mL·min−1, an injection volume of 10 µL with a sample cooler (5 °C) and column oven temperature of 25 °C. Ethanol:Methanol:Monoethanolamine (EtOH:MeOH:MEA) in the ratio of 60:40:0.2 v/v/v was used as a mobile phase. The developed method was validated in accordance with international council for harmonisation (ICH) guidelines and was applied for the estimation of the S-isomer of LGP in LGP–MET HCl tablets. The same method also can be extended for the estimation of the S-isomer in LGP dosage forms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Destabilization Mechanism of Ionic Surfactant on Curcumin Nanocrystal against Electrolytes
Sci. Pharm. 2016, 84(4), 685-693; doi:10.3390/scipharm84040685
Received: 11 August 2016 / Accepted: 31 August 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
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Abstract
We have successfully developed curcumin nanosuspension intended for oral delivery. The main purpose is to improve bioavailability through enhancing its solubility. The nanoparticles were stabilized using various stabilizers, including polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC), d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000
[...] Read more.
We have successfully developed curcumin nanosuspension intended for oral delivery. The main purpose is to improve bioavailability through enhancing its solubility. The nanoparticles were stabilized using various stabilizers, including polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC), d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The average diameter of particles, microscopic appearance, and sedimentation of each preparation was observed and compared. Each stabilizer demonstrated a different degree of inhibition of particle aggregation under electrolyte-containing simulated gastrointestinal (GIT) fluid. Non-ionic stabilizers (PVA, PVP, and TPGS) were shown to preserve the nanosuspension stability against electrolytes. In contrast, strong ionic surfactants such as SDS were found to be very sensitive to electrolytes. The results can provide useful information for the formulators to choose the most suitable stabilizers by considering the nature of stabilizers and physiological characteristics of the target site of the drug. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Cyclodextrin Types and Co-Solvent on Solubility of a Poorly Water Soluble Drug
Sci. Pharm. 2016, 84(4), 694-704; doi:10.3390/scipharm84040694
Received: 15 June 2016 / Accepted: 1 September 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
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Abstract
The aim of the study was to investigate the solubility of piroxicam (Prx) depending on the inclusion complexation with various cyclodextrins (CDs) and on ethanol as a co-solvent. The phase-solubility method was applied to determine drug solubility in binary and ternary systems. The
[...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to investigate the solubility of piroxicam (Prx) depending on the inclusion complexation with various cyclodextrins (CDs) and on ethanol as a co-solvent. The phase-solubility method was applied to determine drug solubility in binary and ternary systems. The results showed that in systems consisting of the drug dissolved in ethanol–water mixtures, the drug solubility increased exponentially with a rising concentration of ethanol. The phase solubility measurements of the drug in aqueous solutions of CDs, β-CD and γ-CD exhibited diagrams of AL-type, whereas 2,6-dimethyl-β-CD revealed AP-type. The destabilizing effect of ethanol as a co-solvent was observed for all complexes regardless of the CD type, as a consequence of it the lowering of the complex formation constants. In systems with a higher concentration of ethanol, the drug solubility was increased in opposition to the decreasing complex formation constants. According to this study, the type of CDs played a more important role on the solubility of Prx, and the use of ethanol as a co-solvent exhibited no synergistic effect on the improvement of Prx solubility. The Prx solubility was increased again due to the better solubility in ethanol. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Spatial Structure and Analgesic Activity of Sodium 3-Benzylaminocarbonyl-1-methyl-2,2-dioxo-1H-2λ6,1-benzothiazin-4-olate Solvates
Sci. Pharm. 2016, 84(4), 705-714; doi:10.3390/scipharm84040705
Received: 5 August 2016 / Accepted: 19 September 2016 / Published: 19 October 2016
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Abstract
In order to obtain and then test pharmocologically any possible conformers of the new feasible analgesic N-benzyl-4-hydroxy-1-methyl-2,2-dioxo-1H-2λ6,1-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide, its 4-O-sodium salt was synthesized using two methods. X-ray diffraction study made possible to determine that, depending on the
[...] Read more.
In order to obtain and then test pharmocologically any possible conformers of the new feasible analgesic N-benzyl-4-hydroxy-1-methyl-2,2-dioxo-1H-2λ6,1-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide, its 4-O-sodium salt was synthesized using two methods. X-ray diffraction study made possible to determine that, depending on the chosen synthesis conditions, the above-mentioned compound forms either monosolvate with methanol or monohydrate, where organic anion exists in the form of three different conformers. Pharmacological testing of the two known pseudo-enantiomeric forms of the original N-benzylamide and of the two solvates of its sodium salt was performed simultaneously under the same conditions and in equimolar doses. Comparison of the results obtained while studying the peculiarities of the synthesized compounds spatial structure and biological properties revealed an important structure-action relationship. In particular, it was shown that the intensity of analgesic effect of different conformational isomers of N-benzyl-4-hydroxy-1-methyl-2,2-dioxo-1H-2λ6,1-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide may change considerably: while low active conformers are comparable with piroxicam, highly active conformers are more than twice as effective as meloxicam. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Comparative Pharmacokinetics Study of the Anti-Parkinsonian Drug Pramipexole
Sci. Pharm. 2016, 84(4), 715-723; doi:10.3390/scipharm84040715
Received: 5 September 2016 / Revised: 7 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 November 2016 / Published: 18 November 2016
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Abstract
The present study aimed to compare pharmacokinetic parameters of two pramipexole 0.25 mg formulations in order to show bioequivalence. The study was conducted in a randomized, open-label, two-period, two-sequence, and crossover design, involving 23 healthy volunteers. One of the 0.25 mg formulations of
[...] Read more.
The present study aimed to compare pharmacokinetic parameters of two pramipexole 0.25 mg formulations in order to show bioequivalence. The study was conducted in a randomized, open-label, two-period, two-sequence, and crossover design, involving 23 healthy volunteers. One of the 0.25 mg formulations of pramipexole evaluated in the study was manufactured by PT Dexa Medica, Palembang, Indonesia, the other, used as the reference, by Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Ingelheim am Rhein, Germany. All eligible subjects were required to fast before each drug administration period, which was separated by a one-week washout period. Pramipexole concentrations in plasma were assayed using a validated ultra performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) detector. The evaluated pharmacokinetic parameters included the area under the plasma concentration curve from time zero to the last observed measurable concentration (AUC0-t), the area under the plasma concentration curve extrapolated to infinite time (AUC0-∞), the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), the time to reach Cmax (tmax), and the plasma concentration half-life (t1/2). To evaluate the bioequivalence of those two pramipexole formulations, 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for geometric mean ratios of both formulations were calculated for AUC and Cmax parameters, while tmax and t1/2 differences were analyzed on the non-transformed data using Wilcoxon matched-pairs and a Student’s paired t-test, respectively. The 90% CIs for the geometric mean ratios of the two pramipexole formulations were 95.89% (90.73%–101.34%), 95.53% (89.75%–101.68%), and 92.11% (84.35%–100.58%) for AUC0-t, AUC0-∞, and Cmax, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences for tmax and t1/2 between the two pramipexole formulations. It is concluded that two pramipexole formulations in this study were bioequivalent. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview Influence of Fragrances on Human Psychophysiological Activity: With Special Reference to Human Electroencephalographic Response
Sci. Pharm. 2016, 84(4), 724-751; doi:10.3390/scipharm84040724
Received: 10 October 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 21 November 2016 / Published: 29 November 2016
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Abstract
The influence of fragrances such as perfumes and room fresheners on the psychophysiological activities of humans has been known for a long time, and its significance is gradually increasing in the medicinal and cosmetic industries. A fragrance consists of volatile chemicals with a
[...] Read more.
The influence of fragrances such as perfumes and room fresheners on the psychophysiological activities of humans has been known for a long time, and its significance is gradually increasing in the medicinal and cosmetic industries. A fragrance consists of volatile chemicals with a molecular weight of less than 300 Da that humans perceive through the olfactory system. In humans, about 300 active olfactory receptor genes are devoted to detecting thousands of different fragrance molecules through a large family of olfactory receptors of a diverse protein sequence. The sense of smell plays an important role in the physiological effects of mood, stress, and working capacity. Electrophysiological studies have revealed that various fragrances affected spontaneous brain activities and cognitive functions, which are measured by an electroencephalograph (EEG). The EEG is a good temporal measure of responses in the central nervous system and it provides information about the physiological state of the brain both in health and disease. The EEG power spectrum is classified into different frequency bands such as delta (0.5–4 Hz), theta (4–8 Hz), alpha (8–13 Hz), beta (13–30 Hz) and gamma (30–50 Hz), and each band is correlated with different features of brain states. A quantitative EEG uses computer software to provide the topographic mapping of the brain activity in frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital brain regions. It is well known that decreases of alpha and beta activities and increases of delta and theta activities are associated with brain pathology and general cognitive decline. In the last few decades, many scientific studies were conducted to investigate the effect of inhalation of aroma on human brain functions. The studies have suggested a significant role for olfactory stimulation in the alteration of cognition, mood, and social behavior. This review aims to evaluate the available literature regarding the influence of fragrances on the psychophysiological activities of humans with special reference to EEG changes. Full article
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Other

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Open AccessAddendum Addendum: Šarić-Kundalić, B.; Fialová, S.; Dobeš, C.; Ölzant, S.; Tekeľová, D.; Grančai, D.; Reznicek, G.; Saukel, J. Multivariate Numerical Taxonomy of Mentha Species, Hybrids, Varieties and Cultivars. Sci. Pharm. 2009, 77, 851–876
Sci. Pharm. 2016, 84(4), 752; doi:10.3390/scipharm84040752
Received: 21 November 2016 / Revised: 2 December 2016 / Accepted: 21 November 2016 / Published: 2 December 2016
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Abstract In the published paper [1], the following plant species are listed: Mentha longifolia var. lavanduliodora, Mentha spicata and Mentha spicata var. crispa.[...] Full article
Open AccessCorrection Correction: Budiarto, Bugi Ratno and Desriani. Detection of HER2 Gene Polymorphism in Breast Cancer: PCR Optimization Study. Sci. Pharm. 2016, 84, 103–111
Sci. Pharm. 2016, 84(4), 753; doi:10.3390/scipharm84040753
Received: 21 November 2016 / Revised: 1 December 2016 / Accepted: 21 November 2016 / Published: 2 December 2016
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Abstract The authors wish to make the following corrections to their paper [1]:[...] Full article

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