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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf., Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2014), Pages 1-390

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Introduction to the Special Issue: Geospatial Monitoring and Modeling of Environmental Change
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2014, 3(1), 206-208; doi:10.3390/ijgi3010206
Received: 22 November 2013 / Accepted: 23 November 2013 / Published: 6 February 2014
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Abstract
Geospatial modeling is an approach to apply analysis to monitor environmental change over time considering different fields of re-search, including computer science, remote sensing, ecology, environmental science, life science, geography (see [1,2] for a critique). The special issue was instigated to publish straightforward
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Geospatial modeling is an approach to apply analysis to monitor environmental change over time considering different fields of re-search, including computer science, remote sensing, ecology, environmental science, life science, geography (see [1,2] for a critique). The special issue was instigated to publish straightforward research on the matter in order to stimulate further discussion on the potential of geospatial modelling. Both theoretical and empirical papers are part of the issue with the support of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, promoting an advanced forum for the science and technology of geographic information. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geospatial Monitoring and Modelling of Environmental Change)
Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of the ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information in 2013
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2014, 3(1), 233-235; doi:10.3390/ijgi3010233
Received: 25 February 2014 / Accepted: 25 February 2014 / Published: 25 February 2014
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Abstract The editors of the ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2013. [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle Utilizing GIS to Examine the Relationship Between State Renewable Portfolio Standards and the Adoption of Renewable Energy Technologies
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2014, 3(1), 1-17; doi:10.3390/ijgi3010001
Received: 11 November 2013 / Revised: 3 December 2013 / Accepted: 16 December 2013 / Published: 24 December 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1054 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the United States, there is no comprehensive energy policy at the federal level. To address issues as diverse as climate change, energy security, and economic development, individual states have increasingly implemented Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPSs), which mandate that utility providers include a
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In the United States, there is no comprehensive energy policy at the federal level. To address issues as diverse as climate change, energy security, and economic development, individual states have increasingly implemented Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPSs), which mandate that utility providers include a specified amount of electricity from renewable energy sources in their total energy portfolios. Some states have included incentives for individual energy technologies in their RPS, such as solar electric (also called photovoltaic or PV technology). Here, we use GIS to visualize adoption of RPSs and electricity generation from renewable energy sources in the US and examine changes in renewable electricity and solar electric generation over time with the goal of informing future policies aimed at promoting the adoption of renewable energy technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS for Renewable Energy)
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Open AccessArticle Quantification of Deltaic Coastal Zone Change Based on Multi-Temporal High Resolution Earth Observation Techniques
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2014, 3(1), 18-28; doi:10.3390/ijgi3010018
Received: 29 November 2013 / Revised: 26 December 2013 / Accepted: 8 January 2014 / Published: 14 January 2014
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Abstract
A series of methodologies are described in this paper aiming to quantify the natural hazard due to the coastal changes at a deltaic fan. The coastline of Istiaia (North Evia, Greece) has been chosen for this study as several areas of accretion and
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A series of methodologies are described in this paper aiming to quantify the natural hazard due to the coastal changes at a deltaic fan. The coastline of Istiaia (North Evia, Greece) has been chosen for this study as several areas of accretion and erosion have been identified during the past few decades. We combined different types of datasets, extracted from high resolution panchromatic aerial photographs and traced the contemporary shoreline by high accuracy surveying with Real Time Kinematics (RTK) GPS equipment. The interpretation of all shorelines required geo-statistical analysis in a Geographical Information System. A large number of high resolution morphological sections were constructed normally to the coast, revealing erosional and depositional parts of the beach. Retreating and extension rates were calculated for each section reaching the values of 0.98 m/yr and 1.36 m/yr, respectively. The results proved to be very accurate, allowing us to expand the developed methodology by using more complete time-series of remote sensing datasets along with more frequent RTK-GPS surveying. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Developing a GIS-Based Visual-Acoustic 3D Simulation for Wind Farm Assessment
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2014, 3(1), 29-48; doi:10.3390/ijgi3010029
Received: 24 November 2013 / Revised: 20 December 2013 / Accepted: 7 January 2014 / Published: 17 January 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1020 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Public landscape impact assessment of renewable energy installations is crucial for their acceptance. Thus, a sound assessment basis is crucial in the implementation process. For valuing landscape perception, the visual sense is the dominant human sensory component. However, the visual sense provides only
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Public landscape impact assessment of renewable energy installations is crucial for their acceptance. Thus, a sound assessment basis is crucial in the implementation process. For valuing landscape perception, the visual sense is the dominant human sensory component. However, the visual sense provides only partial information about our environment. Especially when it comes to wind farm assessments, noise produced by the rotating turbine blades is another major impact factor. Therefore, an integrated visual and acoustic assessment of wind farm projects is needed to allow lay people to perceive their impact adequately. This paper presents an approach of linking spatially referenced auralizations to a GIS-based virtual 3D landscape model. We demonstrate how to utilize a game engine for 3D visualization of wind parks, using geodata as a modeling basis. In particular, the controlling and recording of specific parameters in the game engine is shown in order to establish a link to the acoustical model. The resulting prototype has high potential to complement conventional tools for an improved public impact assessment of wind farms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS for Renewable Energy)
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Open AccessArticle Barrier Island Dynamics Using Mass Center Analysis: A New Way to Detect and Track Large-Scale Change
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2014, 3(1), 49-65; doi:10.3390/ijgi3010049
Received: 30 November 2013 / Revised: 7 January 2014 / Accepted: 8 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3972 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A geographic information system (GIS) was used to introduce and test a new method for quantitatively characterizing topographic change. Borrowing from classic Newtonian mechanics, the concept of a body’s center of mass is applied to the geomorphic landscape, and the barrier island environment
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A geographic information system (GIS) was used to introduce and test a new method for quantitatively characterizing topographic change. Borrowing from classic Newtonian mechanics, the concept of a body’s center of mass is applied to the geomorphic landscape, and the barrier island environment in particular, to evaluate the metric’s potential as a proxy for detecting, tracking and visualizing change. Two barrier islands along North Carolina’s Outer Banks are used to test this idea: Core Banks, uninhabited and largely-undeveloped, and Hatteras Island, altered by the presence of a protective dune system. Findings indicate that for Core Banks, the alongshore change in the center of mass is in accord with dominate littoral transport and wind conditions. Cross-shore change agrees with independent estimates for the island migration rates. This lends credence to our assertion that the mass center metric has the potential to be a viable proxy for describing wholesale barrier migration and would be a valuable addition to the already-established ocean shoreline and subaerial volume metrics. More research is, however, required to demonstrate efficacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal GIS)
Open AccessArticle Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS) Studies Examine Coastal Environments Influenced by Mining
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2014, 3(1), 66-95; doi:10.3390/ijgi3010066
Received: 28 November 2013 / Revised: 20 December 2013 / Accepted: 10 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1393 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There are numerous examples of past and present mine disposal into freshwater and marine coastal bays and riverine environments. Due to its high spatial resolution and extended water penetration, coastal light detection and ranging (LiDAR), coupled with multispectral scanning (MSS), has great promise
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There are numerous examples of past and present mine disposal into freshwater and marine coastal bays and riverine environments. Due to its high spatial resolution and extended water penetration, coastal light detection and ranging (LiDAR), coupled with multispectral scanning (MSS), has great promise for resolving disturbed shoreline features in low turbidity environments. Migrating mine tailings present serious issues for Lake Superior and coastal marine environments. Previous investigations in Lake Superior uncovered a metal-rich “halo” around the Keweenaw Peninsula, related to past copper mining practices. For over a century, waste rock migrating from shoreline tailing piles has moved along extensive stretches of coastline, compromising critical fish breeding grounds, damming stream outlets, transgressing into wetlands and along recreational beaches and suppressing benthic invertebrate communities. In Grand (Big) Traverse Bay, Buffalo Reef is an important spawning area for lake trout and whitefish threatened by drifting tailings. The movement of tailings into Buffalo Reef cobble fields may interfere with the hatching of fish eggs and fry survival, either by filling in crevices where eggs are deposited or by toxic effects on eggs, newly hatched larvae or benthic communities. Here, we show that the coastal tailing migration is not “out of sight, out of mind”, but clearly revealed by using a combination of LiDAR and MSS techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal GIS)
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Open AccessArticle Using a Spatio-Temporal GIS Database to Monitor the Spatial Evolution of Urban Flooding Phenomena. The Case of Athens Metropolitan Area in Greece
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2014, 3(1), 96-109; doi:10.3390/ijgi3010096
Received: 26 December 2013 / Revised: 10 January 2014 / Accepted: 20 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1472 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work focuses on the spatial evolution of urban flooding phenomena in Athens metropolitan area, in Greece. The study examines the locations of flood-related damages and fatalities in Athens in 1880–2010, in comparison with the city’s evolution, to identify possible changes in their
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This work focuses on the spatial evolution of urban flooding phenomena in Athens metropolitan area, in Greece. The study examines the locations of flood-related damages and fatalities in Athens in 1880–2010, in comparison with the city’s evolution, to identify possible changes in their spatial distribution. GIS software was used to develop a spatio-temporal database storing information on the location and timing of these flood-related incidents. The database was then used to determine and quantify spatio-temporal changes of flooding in the city. Results showed a gradual migration of areas subject to flooding from the central to the western part of Athens and finally to the northwestern and southern suburbs. This migration was accompanied by a significant increase of incidents in the newly built parts of the city and a simultaneous decrease at the oldest parts, following closely the city’s spatial expansion over the study period. In addition, the study was able to identify and delineate particular parts of the city that experienced an increasing trend of flood incidents during the last decades and should be given priority in future flood risk mitigation actions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Assessing the Seasonal Dynamics of the Java’s Paddy Field Using MODIS Satellite Images
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2014, 3(1), 110-129; doi:10.3390/ijgi3010110
Received: 10 December 2013 / Revised: 20 January 2014 / Accepted: 22 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2164 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Accurate information of paddy fields over wide areas is essential to support sustainable agricultural and a food security program. Monitoring of these lands continuously, using remote sensing technology, will provide information related to the cropping intensity in the field, as well as its
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Accurate information of paddy fields over wide areas is essential to support sustainable agricultural and a food security program. Monitoring of these lands continuously, using remote sensing technology, will provide information related to the cropping intensity in the field, as well as its dynamics change. We characterized seasonal vegetation dynamics from long-term multi-temporal MODIS satellite datasets in order to determine cropping intensity and to analyze the dynamics change in paddy field of Java. The results indicate that the methodology employed in this research distinguished many specific uses in paddy fields as means of their cropping intensity. Moreover, the seasons were the most important factor affected the dynamics change in the agricultural system. Extreme climate variability caused many paddy fields, especially in non-irrigated land, to remain barren as well the planting time was postponed. Indeed, characterizing the long-term vegetation dynamics of paddy field provides information about the characteristics and trends in these land use types, either caused by natural factors or human activities. Full article
Open AccessArticle A Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-Based Approach to Derivative Map Production and Visualizing Bedrock Topography within the Town of Rutland, Vermont, USA
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2014, 3(1), 130-142; doi:10.3390/ijgi3010130
Received: 17 December 2013 / Revised: 21 January 2014 / Accepted: 22 January 2014 / Published: 29 January 2014
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Abstract
Many state and national geological surveys produce map products from surficial and bedrock geologic maps as a value-added deliverable for a variety of stakeholders. Improvements in powerful geostatistical exploratory tools and robust three-dimensional capabilities within geographic information systems (GIS) can facilitate the production
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Many state and national geological surveys produce map products from surficial and bedrock geologic maps as a value-added deliverable for a variety of stakeholders. Improvements in powerful geostatistical exploratory tools and robust three-dimensional capabilities within geographic information systems (GIS) can facilitate the production of derivative products. In addition to providing access to geostatistical functions, many software packages are also capable of rendering three-dimensional visualizations using spatially distributed point data. A GIS-based approach using ESRI’s® Geostatistical Analyst® was used to create derivative maps depicting surficial overburden, bedrock topography, and potentiometric surface using well data and bedrock exposures. This methodology describes the importance and relevance of creating three-dimensional visualizations in tandem with traditional two-dimensional map products. These 3D products are especially useful for town managers and planners—often unfamiliar with interpreting two-dimensional geologic map products—so they can better visualize and understand the relationships between surficial overburden and potential groundwater resources. Full article
Open AccessArticle Model for Determining Geographical Distribution of Heat Saving Potentials in Danish Building Stock
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2014, 3(1), 143-165; doi:10.3390/ijgi3010143
Received: 30 November 2013 / Revised: 15 January 2014 / Accepted: 20 January 2014 / Published: 5 February 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1402 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since the global oil crisis in the 1970s, Denmark has followed a path towards energy independency by continuously improving its energy efficiency and energy conservation. Energy efficiency was mainly tackled by introducing a high number of combined heat and power plants in the
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Since the global oil crisis in the 1970s, Denmark has followed a path towards energy independency by continuously improving its energy efficiency and energy conservation. Energy efficiency was mainly tackled by introducing a high number of combined heat and power plants in the system, while energy conservation was predominantly approached by implementing heat saving measures. Today, with the goal of 100% renewable energy within the power and heat sector by the year 2035, reductions in energy demand for space heating and the preparation of domestic hot water remain at the top of the agenda in Denmark. A highly detailed model for determining heat demand, possible heat savings and associated costs in the Danish building stock is presented. Both scheduled and energy-saving renovations until year 2030 have been analyzed. The highly detailed GIS-based heat atlas for Denmark is used as a container for storing data about physical properties for 2.5 million buildings in Denmark. Consequently, the results of the analysis can be represented on a single building level. Under the assumption that buildings with the most profitable heat savings are renovated first, the consequences of heat savings for the economy and energy system have been quantified and geographically referenced. The possibilities for further improvements of the model and the application to other geographical regions have been discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS for Renewable Energy)
Open AccessArticle Geospatial Narratives and Their Spatio-Temporal Dynamics: Commonsense Reasoning for High-Level Analyses in Geographic Information Systems
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2014, 3(1), 166-205; doi:10.3390/ijgi3010166
Received: 15 December 2013 / Revised: 17 January 2014 / Accepted: 28 January 2014 / Published: 6 February 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (30503 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The modeling, analysis and visualization of dynamic geospatial phenomenahas been identified as a key developmental challenge for next-generation GeographicInformation Systems (GIS). In this context, the envisaged paradigmatic extensions tocontemporary foundational GIS technology raises fundamental questions concerning theontological, formal representational and (analytical) computational methods
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The modeling, analysis and visualization of dynamic geospatial phenomenahas been identified as a key developmental challenge for next-generation GeographicInformation Systems (GIS). In this context, the envisaged paradigmatic extensions tocontemporary foundational GIS technology raises fundamental questions concerning theontological, formal representational and (analytical) computational methods that wouldunderlie their spatial information theoretic underpinnings. We present the conceptualoverview and architecture for the development of high-level semantic and qualitativeanalytical capabilities for dynamic geospatial domains. Building on formal methods in theareas of commonsense reasoning, qualitative reasoning, spatial and temporal representationand reasoning, reasoning about actions and change and computational models of narrative,we identify concrete theoretical and practical challenges that accrue in the context offormal reasoning about space, events, actions and change. With this as a basis and withinthe backdrop of an illustrated scenario involving the spatio-temporal dynamics of urbannarratives, we address specific problems and solution techniques chiefly involving qualitativeabstraction, data integration and spatial consistency and practical geospatial abduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geospatial Monitoring and Modelling of Environmental Change)
Open AccessArticle Spatial Analysis of Biomass Resources within a Socio-Ecologically Heterogeneous Region: Identifying Opportunities for a Mixed Feedstock Stream
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2014, 3(1), 209-232; doi:10.3390/ijgi3010209
Received: 4 January 2014 / Revised: 21 January 2014 / Accepted: 29 January 2014 / Published: 25 February 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (1076 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Local bioenergy will play a crucial role in national and regional sustainable energy strategies. Effective siting and feedstock procurement strategies are critical to the development and implementation of bioenergy systems. This paper aims to improve spatial decision-support in this domain by shifting focus
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Local bioenergy will play a crucial role in national and regional sustainable energy strategies. Effective siting and feedstock procurement strategies are critical to the development and implementation of bioenergy systems. This paper aims to improve spatial decision-support in this domain by shifting focus from homogenous (forestry or agricultural) regions toward heterogeneous regions—i.e., areas with a presence of both forestry and agricultural activities; in this case, eastern Ontario, Canada. Multiple land-cover and resource map series are integrated in order to produce a spatially distributed GIS-based model of resource availability. These data are soft-linked with spreadsheet-based linear models in order to estimate and compare the quantity and supply-cost of the full range of non-food bioenergy feedstock available to a prospective developer, and to assess the merits of a mixed feedstock stream relative to a homogenous feedstock stream. The method is applied to estimate bioenergy production potentials and biomass supply-cost curves for a number of cities in the study region. Comparisons of biomass catchment areas; supply-cost curves; resource density maps; and resource flow charts demonstrate considerable strategic and operational advantages to locating a facility within the region’s “transition zone” between forestry and agricultural activities. Existing and emerging bioenergy technologies that are feedstock agnostic and therefore capable of accepting a mixed-feedstock stream are reviewed with emphasis on “intermediates” such as wood pellets; biogas; and bio-oils, as well as bio-industrial clusters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS for Renewable Energy)
Open AccessArticle Spatial and Semantic Validation of Secondary Food Source Data
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2014, 3(1), 236-253; doi:10.3390/ijgi3010236
Received: 28 November 2013 / Revised: 6 February 2014 / Accepted: 12 February 2014 / Published: 28 February 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (933 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Governmental and commercial lists of food retailers are often used to measure food environments and foodscapes for health and nutritional research. Information about the validity of such secondary food source data is relevant to understanding the potential and limitations of its application. This
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Governmental and commercial lists of food retailers are often used to measure food environments and foodscapes for health and nutritional research. Information about the validity of such secondary food source data is relevant to understanding the potential and limitations of its application. This study assesses the validity of two government lists of food retailer locations and types by comparing them to direct field observations, including an assessment of whether pre-classification of the directories can reduce the need for field observation. Lists of food retailers were obtained from the Central Business Register (CVR) and the Smiley directory. For each directory, the positive prediction value (PPV) and sensitivity were calculated as measures of completeness and thematic accuracy, respectively. Standard deviation was calculated as a measure of geographic accuracy. The effect of the pre-classification was measured through the calculation of PPV, sensitivity and negative prediction value (NPV). The application of either CVR or Smiley as a measure of the food environment would result in a misrepresentation. The pre-classification based on the food retailer names was found to be a valid method for identifying approximately 80% of the food retailers and limiting the need for field observation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS in Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Investigating Forest Disturbance Using Landsat Data in the Nagagamisis Central Plateau, Ontario, Canada
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2014, 3(1), 254-273; doi:10.3390/ijgi3010254
Received: 20 December 2013 / Revised: 10 February 2014 / Accepted: 17 February 2014 / Published: 4 March 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1781 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Nagagamisis Central Plateau (located in Northern Ontario, Canada) is an area of distinct natural and cultural significance. The importance of this land was officially recognized in 1957 through the establishment of the Nagagamisis Provincial Park Reserve. The park has experienced significant expansion
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The Nagagamisis Central Plateau (located in Northern Ontario, Canada) is an area of distinct natural and cultural significance. The importance of this land was officially recognized in 1957 through the establishment of the Nagagamisis Provincial Park Reserve. The park has experienced significant expansion since its inception and is currently under development as one of Ontario Parks ‘Signature Sites’. Since the 1980s, timber harvest activity has led to widespread forest disturbance just outside of the park boundaries. This research is focused on the detection of stand level forest disturbances associated with timber harvest occurring near Nagagamisis Provincial Park. The image time-series data selected for this project were Landsat TM and ETM+; spanning a twenty-five year period from 1984 to 2009. The Tasselled Cap Transformation and Normalized Difference Moisture Index were derived for use in unsupervised image classification to determine the land cover for each image in the time-series. Image band differencing and raster arithmetic were performed to create maps illustrating the size and spatial distribution of stand level forest disturbances between image dates. A total area of 1649 km2 or 26.1% of the study area experienced stand level disturbance during the analysis period. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Spatial Distribution of Greenhouse Commercial Horticulture in Kenya and the Role of Demographic, Infrastructure and Topo-Edaphic Factors
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2014, 3(1), 274-296; doi:10.3390/ijgi3010274
Received: 22 September 2013 / Revised: 13 February 2014 / Accepted: 17 February 2014 / Published: 4 March 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1050 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Greenhouse commercial horticulture in Kenya started more than two decades ago and has evolved to be a significant sector to the national economy. So far no studies have explored the spatial patterns and dynamics of the area under greenhouse cultivation. Google Earth archives
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Greenhouse commercial horticulture in Kenya started more than two decades ago and has evolved to be a significant sector to the national economy. So far no studies have explored the spatial patterns and dynamics of the area under greenhouse cultivation. Google Earth archives alongside data from various portals provided an opportunity to study those farms’ spatial distribution. The roles of selected topo-edaphic, infrastructure and demographics factors that might influence current location within sub-watersheds in central highlands of Kenya are also examined. Results reveal a non-uniform spread with two high clusters; one in the semi-arid sub-watersheds 3AB shared by Kajiado and Machakos districts and the other is in sub-humid sub-watersheds 3BA shared by Kiambu and Nairobi districts. Multivariate linear regression analysis reveals four statistically significant parameters; population density (p < 0.01), number of dams (p < 0.01), average rainfall (p < 0.01) and average slope (p < 0.05) in predicting the number of greenhouse farms. Soil attributes are not significantly related with greenhouse farming in this study. Findings indicate that greenhouse commercial horticulture is heterogeneous, and rapidly expanding beyond the central highlands towards marginal semi-arid zones in Kenya. These findings are applicable in policy and decision making processes that aid the horticulture sector’s progress in a sustainable manner. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Habitat Mapping and Change Assessment of Coastal Environments: An Examination of WorldView-2, QuickBird, and IKONOS Satellite Imagery and Airborne LiDAR for Mapping Barrier Island Habitats
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2014, 3(1), 297-325; doi:10.3390/ijgi3010297
Received: 12 October 2013 / Revised: 11 February 2014 / Accepted: 20 February 2014 / Published: 6 March 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2561 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Habitat mapping can be accomplished using many techniques and types of data. There are pros and cons for each technique and dataset, therefore, the goal of this project was to investigate the capabilities of new satellite sensor technology and to assess map accuracy
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Habitat mapping can be accomplished using many techniques and types of data. There are pros and cons for each technique and dataset, therefore, the goal of this project was to investigate the capabilities of new satellite sensor technology and to assess map accuracy for a variety of image classification techniques based on hundreds of field-work sites. The study area was Masonboro Island, an undeveloped area in coastal North Carolina, USA. Using the best map results, a habitat change assessment was conducted between 2002 and 2010. WorldView-2, QuickBird, and IKONOS satellite sensors were tested using unsupervised and supervised methods using a variety of spectral band combinations. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) elevation and texture data pan-sharpening, and spatial filtering were also tested. In total, 200 maps were generated and results indicated that WorldView-2 was consistently more accurate than QuickBird and IKONOS. Supervised maps were more accurate than unsupervised in 80% of the maps. Pan-sharpening the images did not consistently improve map accuracy but using a majority filter generally increased map accuracy. During the relatively short eight-year period, 20% of the coastal study area changed with intertidal marsh experiencing the most change. Smaller habitat classes changed substantially as well. For example, 84% of upland scrub-shrub experienced change. These results document the dynamic nature of coastal habitats, validate the use of the relatively new Worldview-2 sensor, and may be used to guide future coastal habitat mapping. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal GIS)
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Open AccessArticle An Operational Web-Based Indicator System for Integrated Coastal Zone Management
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2014, 3(1), 326-344; doi:10.3390/ijgi3010326
Received: 5 December 2013 / Revised: 14 February 2014 / Accepted: 5 March 2014 / Published: 14 March 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1042 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Coastal zones are under severe pressure from anthropogenic activities, as well as on-going climate change with associated sea level rise and increased storminess. These challenges call for integrated and forward looking solutions. The concept on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, as defined during the
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Coastal zones are under severe pressure from anthropogenic activities, as well as on-going climate change with associated sea level rise and increased storminess. These challenges call for integrated and forward looking solutions. The concept on Integrated Coastal Zone Management, as defined during the last twenty years, provides the overall policy frames, but tools to support the planning and management efforts are almost lacking. Furthermore, the forward-looking dimension to embrace the effects of climate change is nearly absent in most implementations. The BLAST project, financed by the European Union Regional Fund through the INTERREG IV North Sea Region Programme, aimed at developing a web-based decision support system to assist Integrated Coastal Zone Management from a climate change perspective, and the current paper describes the methods used and the computing platform for implementing a decision support system. The software applied in developing the system is mainly Open Source components, thus, facilitating a more widespread use of the system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coastal GIS)
Open AccessArticle Geo-Enrichment and Semantic Enhancement of Metadata Sets to Augment Discovery in Geoportals
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2014, 3(1), 345-367; doi:10.3390/ijgi3010345
Received: 17 January 2014 / Revised: 18 February 2014 / Accepted: 3 March 2014 / Published: 17 March 2014
PDF Full-text (2075 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Geoportals are established to function as main gateways to find, evaluate, and start “using” geographic information. Still, current geoportal implementations face problems in optimizing the discovery process due to semantic heterogeneity issues, which leads to low recall and low precision in performing text-based
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Geoportals are established to function as main gateways to find, evaluate, and start “using” geographic information. Still, current geoportal implementations face problems in optimizing the discovery process due to semantic heterogeneity issues, which leads to low recall and low precision in performing text-based searches. Therefore, we propose an enhanced semantic discovery approach that supports multilingualism and information domain context. Thus, we present workflow that enriches existing structured metadata with synonyms, toponyms, and translated terms derived from user-defined keywords based on multilingual thesauri and ontologies. To make the results easier and understandable, we also provide automated translation capabilities for the resource metadata to support the user in conceiving the thematic content of the descriptive metadata, even if it has been documented using a language the user is not familiar with. In addition, to text-enable spatial filtering capabilities, we add additional location name keywords to metadata sets. These are based on the existing bounding box and shall tweak discovery scores when performing single text line queries. In order to improve the user’s search experience, we tailor faceted search strategies presenting an enhanced query interface for geo-metadata discovery that are transparently leveraging the underlying thesauri and ontologies. Full article
Open AccessArticle Monitoring Geologic Hazards and Vegetation Recovery in the Wenchuan Earthquake Region Using Aerial Photography
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2014, 3(1), 368-390; doi:10.3390/ijgi3010368
Received: 25 November 2013 / Revised: 4 March 2014 / Accepted: 10 March 2014 / Published: 19 March 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2464 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
On 12 May 2008, the 8.0-magnitude Wenchuan earthquake occurred in Sichuan Province, China, triggering thousands of landslides, debris flows, and barrier lakes, leading to a substantial loss of life and damage to the local environment and infrastructure. This study aimed to monitor the
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On 12 May 2008, the 8.0-magnitude Wenchuan earthquake occurred in Sichuan Province, China, triggering thousands of landslides, debris flows, and barrier lakes, leading to a substantial loss of life and damage to the local environment and infrastructure. This study aimed to monitor the status of geologic hazards and vegetation recovery in a post-earthquake disaster area using high-resolution aerial photography from 2008 to 2011, acquired from the Center for Earth Observation and Digital Earth (CEODE), Chinese Academy of Sciences. The distribution and range of hazards were identified in 15 large, representative geologic hazard areas triggered by the Wenchuan earthquake. After conducting an overlay analysis, the variations of these hazards between successive years were analyzed to reflect the geologic hazard development and vegetation recovery. The results showed that in the first year after the Wenchuan earthquake, debris flows occurred frequently with high intensity. Resultantly, with the source material becoming less available and the slope structure stabilizing, the intensity and frequency of debris flows gradually decreased with time. The development rate of debris flows between 2008 and 2011 was 3% per year. The lithology played a dominant role in the formation of debris flows, and the topography and hazard size in the earthquake affected area also had an influence on the debris flow development process. Meanwhile, the overall geologic hazard area decreased at 12% per year, and the vegetation recovery on the landslide mass was 15% to 20% per year between 2008 and 2011. The outcomes of this study provide supporting data for ecological recovery as well as debris flow control and prevention projects in hazard-prone areas. Full article
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