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Aerospace, Volume 1, Issue 2 (September 2014), Pages 52-96

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Comparison of Vibrations and Emissions of Conventional Jet Fuel with Stressed 100% SPK and Fully Formulated Synthetic Jet Fuel
Aerospace 2014, 1(2), 52-66; doi:10.3390/aerospace1020052
Received: 30 January 2014 / Revised: 4 July 2014 / Accepted: 25 July 2014 / Published: 27 August 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1333 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The rapid growth of the aviation sector around the globe has witnessed an overwhelming impact on fossil fuel resources. With the implementation of stricter environmental laws over emissions by conventional jet fuels, growing demand for research on alternative fuels has become imperative. [...] Read more.
The rapid growth of the aviation sector around the globe has witnessed an overwhelming impact on fossil fuel resources. With the implementation of stricter environmental laws over emissions by conventional jet fuels, growing demand for research on alternative fuels has become imperative. One-hundred percent Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (SPK) and Fully Formulated Synthetic Jet Fuel have surfaced as viable alternatives for gas turbine engines due to their similar properties as that of Jet Fuel. This paper presents results from an experimental study performed on a small gas turbine engine, comparing emissions performance and vibrations for conventional Jet A-1 Fuel, thermally stressed 100% SPK and Fully Formulated Synthetic Jet Fuel. Different vibration frequencies, power spectra were observed for different fuels. Gaseous emissions observed were nearly the same, whereas, significant changes in particulates emissions were observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aviation Alternative Fuels and Energies)

Review

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Open AccessReview Reforming Technologies to Improve the Performance of Combustion Systems
Aerospace 2014, 1(2), 67-96; doi:10.3390/aerospace1020067
Received: 7 February 2014 / Revised: 30 June 2014 / Accepted: 7 July 2014 / Published: 4 September 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3805 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A large number of theoretical and experimental studies have shown that the performance of kerosene combustion increases significantly if combustion is being assisted by the addition of hydrogen to the fuel/air mixture during the combustion process. It reduces the amount of CO, [...] Read more.
A large number of theoretical and experimental studies have shown that the performance of kerosene combustion increases significantly if combustion is being assisted by the addition of hydrogen to the fuel/air mixture during the combustion process. It reduces the amount of CO, CO2 and NOx emissions, while increasing the flame stability limits. It also helps in bruning fuel/air mixtures at much leaner equivalence ratios. The same principle could be applied to gain benefits in gas turbine combustors. Hydrogen for this purpose could be produced by the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels using a reformer module. This paper presents key hydrogen reforming technologies which, by implementation in gas turbine combustors, hold potential for improving both their performance and service life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aviation Alternative Fuels and Energies)

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