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Economies, Volume 6, Issue 3 (September 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Explaining Fertility Variation in Rural Communities: The Role of Electricity in Ghana
Received: 16 May 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 29 June 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
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Abstract
We believe the massive rural electrification, which began in 1992, played a significant role in the varying fertility rates across rural Ghana. Rural households with electricity, tend to have fewer children ever born to a woman than households without electricity. Using control function
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We believe the massive rural electrification, which began in 1992, played a significant role in the varying fertility rates across rural Ghana. Rural households with electricity, tend to have fewer children ever born to a woman than households without electricity. Using control function regressions, we identify the contribution of electrification to the rural-rural variation in fertility by exploiting the exogenous variations in the access rate to electricity at the district-level. Our results indicate that electrification contributes to a fall in fertility among rural women by between one and three children. These results are qualitatively similar to results from our two-stage least squares estimations and counterfactual analysis. Although our results may not reflect what happens in other countries, they suggest that electrification reduces fertility and should be considered when examining the costs and benefits of rural electrification programs in developing countries. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Industry 4.0 on the Labor Markets of Iran and Japan
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 29 June 2018 / Accepted: 29 June 2018 / Published: 11 July 2018
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Abstract
Industry 4.0 is the essence of the fourth Industrial revolution and is happening right now in manufacturing by using cyber-physical systems (CPS) to reach high levels of automation. Industry 4.0 is especially beneficial in highly developed countries in terms of competitive advantage, but
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Industry 4.0 is the essence of the fourth Industrial revolution and is happening right now in manufacturing by using cyber-physical systems (CPS) to reach high levels of automation. Industry 4.0 is especially beneficial in highly developed countries in terms of competitive advantage, but causes unemployment because of high levels of automation. The aim of this paper is to find out if the impact of adopting Industry 4.0 on the labor markets of Iran and Japan would be the same, and to make analysis to find out whether this change is possible for Iran and Japan with their current infrastructures, economy, and policies. With the present situation of Iran in science, technology, and economy, it will be years before Iran could, or better say should, implement Industry 4.0. Japan is able to adopt Industry 4.0 much earlier than Iran and with less challenges ahead; this does not mean that the Japanese labor market would not be affected by this change but it means that those effects would not cause as many difficulties as they would for Iran. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Economic Growth as a Consequence of the Industry 4.0 Concept)
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Open AccessArticle The Assessment of the Quality of Human Resources in the Midwife Profession in the Healthcare Sector of the Czech Republic
Received: 1 April 2018 / Revised: 20 June 2018 / Accepted: 27 June 2018 / Published: 4 July 2018
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Abstract
The objective of this paper is the assessment of the current state of employment in the midwife profession in the health and social care sector, especially from the viewpoint of quality assurance. Primary research focuses on the level of practical and theoretical knowledge
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The objective of this paper is the assessment of the current state of employment in the midwife profession in the health and social care sector, especially from the viewpoint of quality assurance. Primary research focuses on the level of practical and theoretical knowledge and the skills of graduates within the last 10 years, as well as the forms of development of human resources that healthcare facilities offer for the purposes of supplementing knowledge and developing skills that are lacking. The quantitative research took place in private and public healthcare facilities in the Czech Republic in 2017. The results of the quantitative research show that the offers of workers in the midwife profession in the labor market are slightly insufficient in relation to demand. Research results show that the overall educational level of graduates has improved over time. The research also shows that the greatest deficiencies in terms of missing competencies among new graduates are seen in the area of expertise according to Regulation No. 55/2011 Coll. (newly No. 2/2016), and that what the graduates lack most are skills in communicating with patients. Conversely, current graduates are better equipped with language skills, computer skills and time-management ability. The research also shows that overall practical readiness lags far behind theoretical readiness. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cost of Agricultural Business Equity Capital—A Theoretical and Empirical Study for Poland
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 22 June 2018
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Abstract
This paper proposes a methodology for calculating the cost of equity for unlisted agricultural companies in Poland. An analysis of a fixed effects panel model was conducted on a sample of 79 agricultural enterprises from the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) field of
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This paper proposes a methodology for calculating the cost of equity for unlisted agricultural companies in Poland. An analysis of a fixed effects panel model was conducted on a sample of 79 agricultural enterprises from the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) field of observation in 2012–2015. The empirical model includes a value of land, agricultural area, depreciation, sale earnings, and payables. The study confirmed that in the valuation of the cost of equity capital in agricultural enterprises, factors that are specific to this sector must be taken into account. As the basic source of production is agricultural land, it must be taken into consideration while estimating the cost of equity capital. This factor was included in the theoretical model. Full article
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